THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Mahouts clean an elephant in a private home enclosure, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant belongs to Sundar Menon, a fuel supply magnate who runs Sungroup international. His is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: A mahout cleans an elephants legs around the chains which keep it constrained in a private home, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

GURAVAYAR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A statue of Guravayar Keshavan, the most beloved, largest and most famous elephant in the history of Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

COCHIN, KERALA, INDIA, 17 APRIL 2013: A skeleton of an elephant and its mahout at the Sacred Heart College in Cochin, Kerala, India, 17 April 2013. Kerala has a long tradition of elephants, nowadays that plays out in temple festivals with elephants. These are controversial due to human casualties and abuses against elephants in training and poor conditions for the animals. Its a big money business and has powerful backers who appear to value finance above human life or the living conditions of the elephant. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for the NY Times Magazine. )

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: V.K. Venkitachalam, the lead voice speaking out against cruelty to elephants and elephant festivals in Kerala, India 14 April 2013. He has repeatedly taken on the powers that be, reporting on abuses at every festival and working to change the rules on the treatment of elephant and campaingning to eventually have them removed from festivals in India alltogether. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PATHANAPURAM CONSTITUENCY, KERALA, INDIA, 18 APRIL 2013: K.B Ganesh Kumar, a memeber of the Kerala legislative assembly and the recently resigned minister of forests for Kerala, India, 18 April 2013. Kumar has been an advocate of the use of elephants in religious festivals despite the damage wrought by rampaging elephants and the number of human beings killed in these rampages. He is also a Maliyalam movie actor and was recently forced to resign as minister as a result of a wife-beating scandal. Kumar is an elephant owner and uses his elephant in these festivals for which he is paid a substantial fee. He headed the Kerala elephant owners federation until protest from elephant rights activists forced him to resign over obvious conflict of interest with his ministry of forests portfolio. These same activists believe that Kumar deliberately delayed a new law which restricted the number of elephants allowed inside a temple complex to only 3. As recently as January 2013, 3 people have been killed in elephant festivals where 7 elephants attended, crushing these people in a panic or because there was simply too little space inside the temple to ensure safety. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PATHANAPURAM CONSTITUENCY, KERALA, INDIA, 18 APRIL 2013: K.B Ganesh Kumar, a memeber of the Kerala legislative assembly and the recently resigned minister of forests for Kerala, India, 18 April 2013. Kumar has been an advocate of the use of elephants in religious festivals despite the damage wrought by rampaging elephants and the number of human beings killed in these rampages. He is also a Maliyalam movie actor and was recently forced to resign as minister as a result of a wife-beating scandal. Kumar is an elephant owner and uses his elephant in these festivals for which he is paid a substantial fee. He headed the Kerala elephant owners federation until protest from elephant rights activists forced him to resign over obvious conflict of interest with his ministry of forests portfolio. These same activists believe that Kumar deliberately delayed a new law which restricted the number of elephants allowed inside a temple complex to only 3. As recently as January 2013, 3 people have been killed in elephant festivals where 7 elephants attended, crushing these people in a panic or because there was simply too little space inside the temple to ensure safety. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant walks past two nervous women on its way to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A vet checks to see if an elephant is in mhust before allowing it to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This vet told the NY Times the elephant was safe yet told the owner in Hindi that it was in fact coming into mhust and could become aggressive with the crowd at the temple. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Musicians prepare to attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A vetenarian checks paperwork for elephants attending a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Elephants packed very tightly into a festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This flouts the Kerala law that states there must be 5 meters from center of each elephant to the next. These are male elephants who do not know each other and these conditions exacerbate the potential for violence. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Elephants packed very tightly into a festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This flouts the Kerala law that states there must be 5 meters from center of each elephant to the next. These are male elephants who do not know each other and these conditions exacerbate the potential for violence. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Theehikkottukavu Ramachandran, the most notorious of the festival elephants chained up in a temple complex, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant has killed ten people in his career as a festival elephant, he is the most revered elephant in Kerala but also the most dangerous. His most recently killing occured in January when he killed 3 women inside an overcrowded temple complex. This elephant is obviously dangerous and traumatized but there is a movement underway to have him take part in festivals again, despite his appalling record. In the meantime, he stands alone and chained in the backyard of a temple, swaying from side to side in his confinement. The law in Kerala state currently states that if an elephant is involved in a serious incident at one of these festivals, it has to take a mandatory 15 day time-out before it can once again attend the festival. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants

RAYAMANGALAM, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: AK Ravi Ackyalikudi, lost his wife in January 2013 to a rampaging elephant in a temple attack in Kerala during an elephant festival, 17 April 2013. Ackyalikudi's family was attending the elephant festival at the Kootrumadham Perakkattu Temple where 7 elephants were crammed into a space traditionally used for three. One of the elephants panicked and lashed out and people stampeded fleeing the temple. Ackyalikudi's wife fell to the ground and was kicked to death by the elephant. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Mahouts clean an elephant in a private home enclosure, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant belongs to Sundar Menon, a fuel supply magnate who runs Sungroup international. His is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: A mahout cleans an elephants legs around the chains which keep it constrained in a private home, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 GURAVAYAR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A statue of Guravayar Keshavan, the most beloved, largest and most famous elephant in the history of Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 COCHIN, KERALA, INDIA, 17 APRIL 2013: A skeleton of an elephant and its mahout at the Sacred Heart College in Cochin, Kerala, India, 17 April 2013. Kerala has a long tradition of elephants, nowadays that plays out in temple festivals with elephants. These are controversial due to human casualties and abuses against elephants in training and poor conditions for the animals. Its a big money business and has powerful backers who appear to value finance above human life or the living conditions of the elephant. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for the NY Times Magazine. )
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: V.K. Venkitachalam, the lead voice speaking out against cruelty to elephants and elephant festivals in Kerala, India 14 April 2013. He has repeatedly taken on the powers that be, reporting on abuses at every festival and working to change the rules on the treatment of elephant and campaingning to eventually have them removed from festivals in India alltogether. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PATHANAPURAM CONSTITUENCY, KERALA, INDIA, 18 APRIL 2013: K.B Ganesh Kumar, a memeber of the Kerala legislative assembly and the recently resigned minister of forests for Kerala, India, 18 April 2013. Kumar has been an advocate of the use of elephants in religious festivals despite the damage wrought by rampaging elephants and the number of human beings killed in these rampages. He is also a Maliyalam movie actor and was recently forced to resign as minister as a result of a wife-beating scandal. Kumar is an elephant owner and uses his elephant in these festivals for which he is paid a substantial fee. He headed the Kerala elephant owners federation until protest from elephant rights activists forced him to resign over obvious conflict of interest with his ministry of forests portfolio. These same activists believe that Kumar deliberately delayed a new law which restricted the number of elephants allowed inside a temple complex to only 3. As recently as January 2013, 3 people have been killed in elephant festivals where 7 elephants attended, crushing these people in a panic or because there was simply too little space inside the temple to ensure safety. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PATHANAPURAM CONSTITUENCY, KERALA, INDIA, 18 APRIL 2013: K.B Ganesh Kumar, a memeber of the Kerala legislative assembly and the recently resigned minister of forests for Kerala, India, 18 April 2013. Kumar has been an advocate of the use of elephants in religious festivals despite the damage wrought by rampaging elephants and the number of human beings killed in these rampages. He is also a Maliyalam movie actor and was recently forced to resign as minister as a result of a wife-beating scandal. Kumar is an elephant owner and uses his elephant in these festivals for which he is paid a substantial fee. He headed the Kerala elephant owners federation until protest from elephant rights activists forced him to resign over obvious conflict of interest with his ministry of forests portfolio. These same activists believe that Kumar deliberately delayed a new law which restricted the number of elephants allowed inside a temple complex to only 3. As recently as January 2013, 3 people have been killed in elephant festivals where 7 elephants attended, crushing these people in a panic or because there was simply too little space inside the temple to ensure safety. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant walks past two nervous women on its way to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A vet checks to see if an elephant is in mhust before allowing it to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This vet told the NY Times the elephant was safe yet told the owner in Hindi that it was in fact coming into mhust and could become aggressive with the crowd at the temple. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Musicians prepare to attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A vetenarian checks paperwork for elephants attending a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Elephants packed very tightly into a festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This flouts the Kerala law that states there must be 5 meters from center of each elephant to the next. These are male elephants who do not know each other and these conditions exacerbate the potential for violence. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Elephants packed very tightly into a festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This flouts the Kerala law that states there must be 5 meters from center of each elephant to the next. These are male elephants who do not know each other and these conditions exacerbate the potential for violence. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Theehikkottukavu Ramachandran, the most notorious of the festival elephants chained up in a temple complex, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant has killed ten people in his career as a festival elephant, he is the most revered elephant in Kerala but also the most dangerous. His most recently killing occured in January when he killed 3 women inside an overcrowded temple complex. This elephant is obviously dangerous and traumatized but there is a movement underway to have him take part in festivals again, despite his appalling record. In the meantime, he stands alone and chained in the backyard of a temple, swaying from side to side in his confinement. The law in Kerala state currently states that if an elephant is involved in a serious incident at one of these festivals, it has to take a mandatory 15 day time-out before it can once again attend the festival. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants
 RAYAMANGALAM, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: AK Ravi Ackyalikudi, lost his wife in January 2013 to a rampaging elephant in a temple attack in Kerala during an elephant festival, 17 April 2013. Ackyalikudi's family was attending the elephant festival at the Kootrumadham Perakkattu Temple where 7 elephants were crammed into a space traditionally used for three. One of the elephants panicked and lashed out and people stampeded fleeing the temple. Ackyalikudi's wife fell to the ground and was kicked to death by the elephant. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)
 ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)
 ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)
 ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Mahouts clean an elephant in a private home enclosure, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant belongs to Sundar Menon, a fuel supply magnate who runs Sungroup international. His is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: A mahout cleans an elephants legs around the chains which keep it constrained in a private home, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Subrimanya Temple, Mamuthy Town, Kerala, India 14 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

GURAVAYAR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A statue of Guravayar Keshavan, the most beloved, largest and most famous elephant in the history of Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

COCHIN, KERALA, INDIA, 17 APRIL 2013: A skeleton of an elephant and its mahout at the Sacred Heart College in Cochin, Kerala, India, 17 April 2013. Kerala has a long tradition of elephants, nowadays that plays out in temple festivals with elephants. These are controversial due to human casualties and abuses against elephants in training and poor conditions for the animals. Its a big money business and has powerful backers who appear to value finance above human life or the living conditions of the elephant. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for the NY Times Magazine. )

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A female elephant is bathed in the car park at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is bathed in a temple complex, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PUNNATATHURKOTTA ELEPHANT CAMP, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Chained elephant at Punnatathurkotta Elephant camp, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This is the largest captive elephant camp in the world. The elephants in these images are in mhust yet are unable to breed or have any interaction with female elephants. Many of the elephants here go out for elephant festivals and there have been a number of incidents with elephants in mhust injuring or killing people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephant preparations for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Elephants and their mahouts get ready for a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MAMUTHY TOWN, KERALA, INDIA, 14 APRIL 2013: V.K. Venkitachalam, the lead voice speaking out against cruelty to elephants and elephant festivals in Kerala, India 14 April 2013. He has repeatedly taken on the powers that be, reporting on abuses at every festival and working to change the rules on the treatment of elephant and campaingning to eventually have them removed from festivals in India alltogether. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PATHANAPURAM CONSTITUENCY, KERALA, INDIA, 18 APRIL 2013: K.B Ganesh Kumar, a memeber of the Kerala legislative assembly and the recently resigned minister of forests for Kerala, India, 18 April 2013. Kumar has been an advocate of the use of elephants in religious festivals despite the damage wrought by rampaging elephants and the number of human beings killed in these rampages. He is also a Maliyalam movie actor and was recently forced to resign as minister as a result of a wife-beating scandal. Kumar is an elephant owner and uses his elephant in these festivals for which he is paid a substantial fee. He headed the Kerala elephant owners federation until protest from elephant rights activists forced him to resign over obvious conflict of interest with his ministry of forests portfolio. These same activists believe that Kumar deliberately delayed a new law which restricted the number of elephants allowed inside a temple complex to only 3. As recently as January 2013, 3 people have been killed in elephant festivals where 7 elephants attended, crushing these people in a panic or because there was simply too little space inside the temple to ensure safety. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PATHANAPURAM CONSTITUENCY, KERALA, INDIA, 18 APRIL 2013: K.B Ganesh Kumar, a memeber of the Kerala legislative assembly and the recently resigned minister of forests for Kerala, India, 18 April 2013. Kumar has been an advocate of the use of elephants in religious festivals despite the damage wrought by rampaging elephants and the number of human beings killed in these rampages. He is also a Maliyalam movie actor and was recently forced to resign as minister as a result of a wife-beating scandal. Kumar is an elephant owner and uses his elephant in these festivals for which he is paid a substantial fee. He headed the Kerala elephant owners federation until protest from elephant rights activists forced him to resign over obvious conflict of interest with his ministry of forests portfolio. These same activists believe that Kumar deliberately delayed a new law which restricted the number of elephants allowed inside a temple complex to only 3. As recently as January 2013, 3 people have been killed in elephant festivals where 7 elephants attended, crushing these people in a panic or because there was simply too little space inside the temple to ensure safety. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Eliphants are prepared in a roadside canal to attend a religious festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant walks past two nervous women on its way to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A vet checks to see if an elephant is in mhust before allowing it to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. This vet told the NY Times the elephant was safe yet told the owner in Hindi that it was in fact coming into mhust and could become aggressive with the crowd at the temple. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant does a ceremonial walk through a temple at a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Musicians prepare to attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: A vetenarian checks paperwork for elephants attending a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: Images of the faithful who have come attend an elephant festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Elephants packed very tightly into a festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This flouts the Kerala law that states there must be 5 meters from center of each elephant to the next. These are male elephants who do not know each other and these conditions exacerbate the potential for violence. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Elephants packed very tightly into a festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This flouts the Kerala law that states there must be 5 meters from center of each elephant to the next. These are male elephants who do not know each other and these conditions exacerbate the potential for violence. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant attends a temple ceremony at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: An elephant opens the Thrissur Pooram as it come through a temple door at Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This happens only once a year and is the signal to open the largest elephant festival in Kerala. Over 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Theehikkottukavu Ramachandran, the most notorious of the festival elephants chained up in a temple complex, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant has killed ten people in his career as a festival elephant, he is the most revered elephant in Kerala but also the most dangerous. His most recently killing occured in January when he killed 3 women inside an overcrowded temple complex. This elephant is obviously dangerous and traumatized but there is a movement underway to have him take part in festivals again, despite his appalling record. In the meantime, he stands alone and chained in the backyard of a temple, swaying from side to side in his confinement. The law in Kerala state currently states that if an elephant is involved in a serious incident at one of these festivals, it has to take a mandatory 15 day time-out before it can once again attend the festival. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants

RAYAMANGALAM, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: AK Ravi Ackyalikudi, lost his wife in January 2013 to a rampaging elephant in a temple attack in Kerala during an elephant festival, 17 April 2013. Ackyalikudi's family was attending the elephant festival at the Kootrumadham Perakkattu Temple where 7 elephants were crammed into a space traditionally used for three. One of the elephants panicked and lashed out and people stampeded fleeing the temple. Ackyalikudi's wife fell to the ground and was kicked to death by the elephant. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

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