OMARURU, NAMIBIA, 5 November 2015: Gerd Gamanab, 67, is a completely sightless man hoping for a miracle at a blindness camp in Omaruru District hospital in Namibia. He lost his sight to 50 years of farm labour in the Namibian sun and dust, which destroyed both of his corneas. This kind of blindness is the result of living in remote locations with prolonged exposure to fierce elements and no eye care anywhere nearby. A lack of education as to what was happening to his eyes also allowed this to occur. These camps are held all over Namibia and cater to sections of the population that do not receive regular eye care, mostly as a result of poverty. The applicant are screened and if the diagnosis is a mature cataract, they are selected as candidates for a simple operation which in fifteen minutes lends signicant sight to their world. The cataract is removed by a surgical vacuum and a new lens in inserted. Bandages are removed the next day and in most cases a real improvement in vision is the result. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Pham, 32, a man born without eyes due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)

ST PETERSBURG, FLORIDIA, USA, 21 MARCH 2016: Marine Cpl. Michael Jernigan was five weeks from leaving Iraq when an improvised explosive device mangled his right hand and left knee, shattered his entire forehead, destroyed both eyes and left him with a traumatic brain injury. The shrapnel from two rigged 105 shells blew him twenty meters out of the gun turret of the Humvee he was in, passing straight through his right eye and out of his left. This was on August 22, 2004. He became the first US serviceman to lose both eyes in combat in Iraq. Michael underwent 30 surgeries over 12 months enduring tremendous pain and trauma. He eventually had a Bilateral Anucleation where the remains of both eyes were removed and spacers were implanted. One of his optical nerves is badly damaged, the other remains intact. He has no sight whatsoever. Michael is seen in his hometown of St Petersburg, Florida with his new Guide dog “Treasure.” Mike was initially paired up with a guide dog from Southeastern Guide dogs in Florida and became involved with that organization. He helped start the Paws for Patriots non-profit program through the Southeastern Guide Dogs in Palmetto as well as the Paws for Independence. Today he is the associate director of philanthropy for Southeastern Guide dogs and lives in St Petersburg, Florida, where he grew up. His mission is to provide guide dogs to veterans who have lost their sight in the course of their duties. Michael has also completed a college degree and is a regular speaker on behalf of US veterans. The currents state of research in Blindness is moving forward at a rapid pace. Retinal implants combined with Stem Cell technology and Gene Therapy, the future may well offer whole eye replacement, a dream for many in the world of blindness. Michael remains philosophical about this. “I have been blind for 11 and a half years now. I’m okay with being blind, Organ regeneration was once Star-Trek stuff but I know that these days they are moving ahea

NEW YORK CITY, USA, 18 MARCH 2016: Sandford Greenberg and Art Garfunkel seen at their Alma Mater Columbia University. Greenberg lost his sight in his first few months at Columbia as a young man. Garfunkel was his room-mate at the time and went to help Greenberg climb out of his desperation at finding himself blind. They made a significant train journey back to NY city and once they reached Grand Central became separated and then Greenberg was forced to make his way to Columbia University alone as a blind man for the first time. When Greenberg finally reached Columbia he felt a touch on his arm and it turned out that Garfunkel had been alongside him the entire time. Greenberg sites this moment as when it first occurred to him that he was going to be fine despite his blindness. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

POLOKWANE, SOUTH AFRICA, 27 APRIL 2016: Dawie Groenewalt, South Africa's alleged Rhino horn kingpin and the subject of a 6 year old court case involving multiple charges related to illegal Rhino handling, horn theft, money laundering amongst other charges. He is seen on his game farm in Polokwane where he breeds high-end game for sale and hunting purposes. Groenewalt has also been charged and arrested in the USA on animal trophy charges. Groenwalt denies any wrong doing. He is also one of the driving forces behind the court effort to legalize the rhino trade in South Africa. Interestingly, if horn was to be legalized, most of his charges would disapear and he would be in a prime position as a breeder to make significant money from rhino horn. He owns two large properties for breeding and hunting purposes and he hosts many international hunters on those properties. In a small circle of breeders, vets, lawyers and hunters, Dawie is connected to many people in this world. He states freely that South Africa's recent decent not to apply to CITES for the legalization of horn is a death knell for rhino in the wild in South Africa. He further alleges that Kruger National Park, the largest repository for Rhino in the world, vastly over-reports their rhino numbers. Interestingly again, Kruger is Groenwalt's largest source for Rhino, he has won repeated tenders for rhino from the park. He is also connected to John Hume, the worlds largest Rhino breeder and one of three partners in Groenwalt's legal efforts to legalize Rhino horn for export to Asia. He claims to receive multiple calls from both Chinese and Vietnamese buyers on a monthly basis, all asking for horn. He also tells of taking representatives from both nations to John Hume's place and to show them Hume's cache of horns from dehorning. This cache is allegedly worth in excess of 300 000 000 South African Rand, around 20 million dollars. He argues in favour of breeding and dehorning for export, stating that John Hume al

VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, JANUARY 25 2015: Emmanuel De Merode, head warden of Virunga National Park, is seen in the Southern sector headquarters of Rumangabo with two of his permanent bodyguards. De Merode has worked inside Virunga since 1992 and has been present for all the trials and tribulations of Virunga since then. He has been head warden since 2008. He has negotiated with two major Rebel groups to keep access to the mountain gorillas of the region, he has dealt with the deaths of more than 170 of his Rangers. He has been a conservation visionary in securing funding to continue the running of Virunga and pioneered the building of sustainable hydroelectric projects to win the hearts of local communities and stave off the threat of oil exploration. De Merode was shot four times last year by three unknown men who are either linked to the FDLR rebel group or to Soco oil, a British oil compnay De Merode has been campaigning against. He was back in the park a month after he was shot despite warnings about his health and his safety. De Merode continues to spearhead the global campaign to protect Virunga, beloved by his men and one of the most respected conservation figues in the world.

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, USA, 15 JULY 2015: Dr Carl June, head of the Cart19 cancer program at UPenn surveys the Philadelphia skyline from the construction platform for his new laboratory. The lab is being built with help from Novartis who have supported Dr June for a number of years. Dr June has pioneered new Gene therapy in the search for a cure for cancer, revolutionizing how we may come to conquer the disease. He and his team have developed a means by which to use the HIV virus as a targeting vector for cancer cells, allowing the patients own T-cells to go to war once they have been turned into super cells and re-injected into the patients body. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Claysun Benally with his horse in Cameron, Arizona. Claysun is a strong believer in traditional Navajo values and along with his father keeps several horses on their property in Flagstaff. The Navajo have a long relationship with the wild horse, a relationship characterized by gentleness and agreement rather than breaking the horses spirti to the will of man. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

VIVEKANANDA MISSION ASRAM, HALDIA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, JANUARY 14, 2016: A young boy with severely impaired vision seen in the hostel residence of the Vivekananda Mission Asram school for the blind. This is the highest rated school for blind children in India, the country with the highest number of blind people, arond 1% of their population, approximately 12 million people. Vivekanda Mission Asram provides care to some of the poorest of blind children, providing them with an education and tools for life survival once they leave the Asram after graduating. The children learn a normal school curiculum through braile and a team of dedicated teachers. Vocationa training is also available at the Asram in weaving, candle making amongst other skills that can add meaning to a blind life in India. Most of the blind in India end up as beggars, this school offers students a chance to be more than that. A number of their students have gone on to become senior teachers for sighted pupils, lawyers and business people. In these images the boys and girls are seen attending school lessons, learning Braille, music as well as scenes from their hostel residence and sports activities. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

KISUMU, KENYA, 21 JUNE 2015: Shelvine Achreng is sick with Leukemia and Sickle Cell disease. Her parents are impoverished farm labourers who cannot afford transport to the appropriate hospital, let alone the costs of treating Shelvine's condition. Victims of this kind of disease amongst Africa's poor are destined to die without outside intervention. Non-Communicable diseases like Cancer, Hypertension and Diabetes are on the rise in Africa, adding to the strain the more traditional diseases already place on populations. Poverty only serves to increase fatalities amongst the poorest of these. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)

JUBA, SOUTH SUDAN, FEBRUARY 2013: Sister Felicita Humwara, the head of history and religious studies at Juba Day Secondary School, Juba, South Sudan, February 3, 2013. Sister Humwara has taken a special interest in early marriage students and students who have fallen pregnant while at school. This is not uncommon in South Sudan. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

LEBANON, TENNESSEE, USA, 30 MAY 2014: Whitney Lackey is a 17-year-old athlete living in Lebanon, Tennessee who participates in the Special Olympics while managing Tuberous Sclerosis. Whitney experiences renal angiomyolipomas, angiofibromas and cognitive delays associated with her TSC diagnosis. Whitney is an only child and lives at home with her parents, Sharon and Brent Lackey. Whitney has had multiple tumors all over her body since she was a baby and also suffers from seizures. Novartis makes a drug called Afinitor which was developed as a cancer medication. It has the unexpected effect of shrinking tumors in people with Tuberous Sclerosis. This underlines the importance of ongoing research and development for big Pharma, something Novartis does more of than any other pharmaceutical company. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)

LEBANON, TENNESSEE, USA, 30 MAY 2014: Whitney Lackey is a 17-year-old athlete living in Lebanon, Tennessee who participates in the Special Olympics while managing Tuberous Sclerosis. Whitney experiences renal angiomyolipomas, angiofibromas and cognitive delays associated with her TSC diagnosis. Whitney is an only child and lives at home with her parents, Sharon and Brent Lackey. Whitney has had multiple tumors all over her body since she was a baby and also suffers from seizures. Novartis makes a drug called Afinitor which was developed as a cancer medication. It has the unexpected effect of shrinking tumors in people with Tuberous Sclerosis. This underlines the importance of ongoing research and development for big Pharma, something Novartis does more of than any other pharmaceutical company. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

VIVEKANANDA MISSION ASRAM, HALDIA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, JANUARY 14, 2016: Swami Biswanathanda, the religious leader of the Vivekananda Mission Asram school for the blind. He is seen at the temple complex located on the Mission grounds. This is one of the best schools for blind children in India, the country with the highest number of blind people, arond 1% of their population, approximately 12 million people. Vivekanda Mission Asram provides care to some of the poorest of blind children, providing them with an education and tools for life survival once they leave the Asram after graduating. The children learn a normal school curiculum through braile and a team of dedicated teachers. Vocationa training is also available at the Asram in weaving, candle making amongst other skills that can add meaning to a blind life in India. Most of the blind in India end up as beggars, this school offers students a chance to be more than that. A number of their students have gone on to become senior teachers for sighted pupils, lawyers and business people. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

MU CANG CHAI, YEN BAI, VIETNAM, 6 JUNE 2015: Dr Chang As Sinh, 37, updates his records in his office in the community hospital in the hills over Mu Cang Chai. Sinh has worked in this community for over 10 years and is the only doctor in the community. He speaks the local Hmong dialect and is instrumental in medical care delivery to this remote ethnic minority. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)

ANCHORAGE, ALASKA, 1 March 2016: When Dan Bigley was 25 he lost life as he knew when a bear mauled him, leaving his face ruined and his eyes blind after the incident. After relearning everything from how to match his socks to how to make a living, Dan earned a masters degree in social work, got married and became a father to two children. He currently works with youth in need in Anchorage, Alaska. Medical science is moving forward at a rapid pace when it comes to rebuilding aspects of the cell building blocks that make up our organs. There is speculation within the industry that one day whole eye replacement may become a possibility. Dan would be the perfect candidate for that, as would children and veterans who lose their sight in combat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD, 7 JANUARY 2015: The "Wild Dog" Ranger horse patrol group as it prepares to leave for a week of anti poaching patrol at Zakouma National Park, Chad. The horse patrols are the old guard of Zakouma's rangers and have seen a good deal of conflict in their time in the park. Zakouma lost nearly 75% of its elephants in the decade before 2011 due to raids by Janajaweed and Sudanese poachers, many of them from the Sudanese military. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a big supporter of the elephant of Zakouma and of its elephants. The herds here until recently used to be as large as 1000 animals all moving together, severe poaching over the last decade saw that number decimated and now only around 20% of the number remains. Since 2011 however there has been control over poaching and there has not been a single elephant poached in the last 2 years. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a strong supporter of the park and Zakouma is on the upsurge in terms of its elephant population once again. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DR CONGO, 26 NOVEMBER 2015: ICCN conservation rangers working as a bodyguard unit wait for a visit from the Minister of the Environment at Rumangabo Ranger Headquarters. Fighting in the region between FDLR rebels and Virunga's rangers continues to be a problem and bodyguard units are assigned to key wardens in the park. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

GULU, UGANDA: Margret Acino, 32, is one of hundreds of thousands of victims of the L.R.A; a rebel group that now relies heavily on ivory to fund their terror campaign. She was attacked by members of the Lord’s Resistance Army when she was 23 and 9 months pregnant. Her lips, ears and nose were cut off and her breasts were hacked off by the rebels. Margret and a small group of villagers had gone to the fields for crops when they found themselves surrounded. They were taken quickly to an area outside of Gulu where the men accused them of informing on the LRA to the Ugandan Army. Two men and a child were then immediately killed with the hoes they had been carrying for farming. The commander of the rebels accused them again, confronting Margaret and accusing her of being the wife of a soldier. Her husband was in fact a simple farmer. The LRA commander then killed another women in front of her. He said this must be the truth or how could she be so confident in talking with them. He then said he would teach her not to inform ever again. He ordered his men, mostly young teenagers, to produce a razor blade. They hesitated and the commander then threatened his own men, one of them then produced a razor blade and they were ordered to cut off Margret’s lips, ears and nose, a practice that was an LRA trademark at the time. When the men were finished, Margret was released and told to run. She passed out from loss of blood shortly thereafter and when she revived she found a man with a bicycle who took her to an IDP. She was in surgery for 2 days, her baby was born via an emergency caesarian and Margret then lapsed into a coma for 5 days. She has had 7 surgeries since to try to repair her ravaged face. The LRA commander who ordered this brutality subsequently defected and was given amnesty. Margaret saw him at a World Vision camp and became hysterical, telling people he was the one behind her tragedy. He was moved from the camp but not prosecuted. Margret has subsequently forgi

ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD, 6 JANUARY 2015: Djime Said, 50, the lone survivor of the Ranger massacre at Heban, Chad, on the 3rd September 2012. The rangers were killed by poachers who were members of the Sudanese military. They killed the rangers because a few weeks earlier, the Rangers had found their camp and taken all their ammunition, horse and provisions. The attack occured in the very early morning when it was still dark and the Rangers were sleeping. Djime Said was employed as a cook with them in the rainy season. He said there was suddenly heavy firing out of nowhere and he found himself rolling down the steep hill that made up the Ranger post at Heban. He was shot in the buttocks but managed to hide away for the day and then come back to the camp that night where he confirmed all were dead and the camp looted. Said spend the next week trying to get to help, two days of which were spent wading through a dense swamp on his way to aid. He received $2000 compensation from the Chadian government for his injuries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

NANDUMA, CHAD, 12 JANUARY 2015: Zakouma National Park Rangers interact easily with the men of a Nomad camp close to Zakouma National Park. The Park has developed good relations with the nomads and they share an intelligence network which has helped to prevent poaching. A number of Rangers come from these communities and have close ties. Zakouma is recovering from a ten year period where from 2012 to 2012 they lost 90% of their elephants, almost 4000 elephant. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA, 13 APRIL 2014: Images from a multi-tribe Pow Wow held in Flagstaff Arizona. These dancers come from all over America, the portraits are of Navajo dancers. Their costumes are not traditional however and have come to portray an almost "Super-Indian" collective today. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Figaro Magazine.)

FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA, 13 APRIL 2014: Images from a multi-tribe Pow Wow held in Flagstaff Arizona. These dancers come from all over America, the portraits are of Navajo dancers. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Figaro Magazine.)

OSAKA, JAPAN, 19 OCTOBER 2014: Sensei Fumon Tanaka, 73, Samurai master and descendent of a long and distinguished line of Samurai warriors in Japan. He is seen at a temple complex in Osaka, Japan. Sensei Tanaka is somewhat controversial amongst the pursuants of the Samurai arts in that he embraces the media and has appeared in films, documentaries and commercials all showcasing his Samurai martial arts skills. This is controversial in Samurai culture as many pursuants believe in secrecy and humbleness and not in ostentatious display.

VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 12, plays by herself on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few proper burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. Kumkum will first have her hands repaired to offer some use and then her face and body will be attended to. It will require at least a year of surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something she would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.

VARANASI, INDIA, 5 SEPTEMBER 2014: VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 13, poses on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. She is seen 10 months after she first underwent surgery to heal her terrible burns. This is one of the very few facilities in India to offer plastic surgery to the poor. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few hospital burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. It will require at least 5 years of succesive surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something Kumkum would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 2010: CollenMashawana, 28, the successful co-owner of Vharanani Consulting, an IT firm specialising in consulting work for the South African government, 4 May 2010, Johannesburg, South Africa. {Phone Collen at +27 116561418/+27 11 6563553 if you would like to interview him.} (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for Bloomberg Businessweek.)

Turkana, North Kenya, October 9 2014: A severely malnourished Turkana child who’s family has been driven out of their traditional land by invading Dassanech from Southern Ethiopia. The Dassanech have themselves been forced to relocate by new Ethiopian Sugar Cane farms and Dam projects which have reduced the flow of water in the Omo river by four fifths of its usual size. This is now affecting over 600 000 armed tribesmen on both side of the Ethiopia/Kenya border and conflict is increasingly the norm.

The youngest patient ever to use a Berlin Heart, a device which replaces your own heart while waiting for an operation or a transplant. The Berlin Heart is located outside of the body. Tragically, this young boy lived only a year or so after his final procedure, when he died of an opportunistic infection. He was a huge WWF wrestling fan.

WEST BENGAL, INDIA 28 OCTOBER 2013: Sonia Singh explores the beginning of sight as she runs her hands through bullrushes close to her village after undergoing eye surgery. Both Sonia, 12, and her younger sister Anita, 5, are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness and they will need to excercise their new eyes for at least six months before their sight approximates normal. The surgery to cure cataract blindness is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.

MUZZAFARPUR, INDIA, 5 SEPTEMBER 2014: Ragini Kumari, 10, was badly burnt by a Kerosene fire when she was 2 years old, she is one of over 6 million people burnt in India every year. Ragini has suffered constrictions of her neck and shoulders and lived in a permanently cramped and restricted postion ever since. Her family is deeply impoverished and like millions of India's poor she has been unable to secure the necessary surgery. Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh, found Ragini at a burns camp he held in her area and has arranged for her to attend his clinic where he performs free surgery for the poorest of the poor of India. She is seen at her home before surgery and on her journey to his clinic in Varnasi, India. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

Blind albino schoolboys pose at their boarding school at the Vivekananda Mission School for the Blind - India, West Bengal, September 15, 2014.

Blind albino schoolboys pose at their boarding school at the Vivekananda Mission School for the Blind - India, West Bengal, September 15, 2014.

MICHIGAN-DEARBORN, USA- OCTOBER 2007: Scenes from the Republican Presidential Candidates Debate in Michigan-Dearborn, USA, 8 October 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images)

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA-JANUARY 2002: A masked man recovers from a severe Sadism and Masochism session with his Mistress at a house in suburban Johannesburg. During this session he was whipped and burnt with a cigar. This is the only means by which he finds a sense of self-worth. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES

CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: A research trip led by biologist Thierry Aebischer and Special Projects manager Raffael Hickisch. The purpose of this trip was to monitor and retrieve camera trap footage and look for Chimpanzees. Thierry and Raffael have walked the entire Chinko area for the last 4 years, conducting unique research despite the dangers of different armed groups including the notorious LRA. They have compiled over 700 000 camera traps images which serve to illustrate the remaining wildlife and why this region is worth saving. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)

LAKE TURKANA, NORTHERN KENYA, MAY 2010: A blind and mentally handicapped Dasenetch man, Michael, 20, in Lake Turkana North Kenya, 20 May 2010. A lack of any access to medical care resulted in brain damage when Michael was born. It remains an important priority for pastoralist tribes all over Kenya to have access to medical care in their communities in order to secure the well being of their people. The cost of this is driving many pastoralists to abandon traditional cattle practises and adopt other economic pursuits in order to cope with the pressures of their changing lives.

SOCHI, RUSSIA, NOVEMBER 2012: Advocate Igor Kukochkin is one the very few lawyers in Russia prepared to defend those who have been illegally evicted and their homes destroyed to make way for Olympics construction in Sochi, Russia, November 26, 2012. His lonely stance highlights the lack of legal transparency in the process and in addition, the use of threats and intimidation to force people from their homes and the legal profession away from defending them. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Jones Benally, a famous medicine man, dances the Navajo Hoop dance in a small canyon in the badlands of Cameron, Arizona. The hoop dance is traditionally performed at the end of a grueling nine day ceremony and is a form of storytelling dance representing various animals, symbols and storytelling elements, all representing the never ending circle of life for the Navajo. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

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Yemen and the Guantanamo connection

SHEBAM-KAWBABAN, YEMEN - 21 NOVEMBER 3 2005: Yemen has the second highest percentage of prisoners housed in Guantanamo Bay. One of the reasons for this this is a long standing warrior culture which has existed since before the time of the Prophet Mohammed. This is depicted in this image of two local men stand on the hillside outside their ancient fortress-like city on top of a mountain in Shebam-Kawbaban. The men are traditionally dressed and are armed with AK-47's. Yemen has a long history of warrior culture which continues today. Owning and carrying a weapon is normal, especially outside of the capital city of Sana'a. The weapon is considered a symbol of male pride and prowess and is considered neccesary in these areas. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Guantanamo Prisoners Families

ZAGADO, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of MNJ breakaway faction leader and Tuareg Rissa ag Boula, a former Niger Army commander and Minister of Tourism photographed in Zagado, Nothern Niger, 7 April 2009. Boula is now on the run himself from the French as well as Niger forces. He has gone back to his own people and joined the Tuareg rebellion although it is under some scepticism from other MNJ leaders. He has a reputation as a fierce fighter and is seen with his sniper rifle. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

Iraqi Olympic Wrestling champion

“Americans” prison gang leader, Cape Town South Africa.

LORYRA, SOUTH OMO, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Dassanech people in the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

A village women with skin condition, Northern Ghana

WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 25 SEPTEMBER 2013: A blind albino schoolboy at the Vivekananda Mission school for the blind, West Bengal, India.

HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Kein, 25, a man born with birth defects due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)

MINDIMA VILLAGE, CHIMBU PROVINCE, HIGHLANDS, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-DECEMBER 2008: A traditionally dressed elder in a village in Chimbu Province, Highlands, Papua New Guinea, 18 December 2008. These outfits will be worn only on special occasions, namely Sing-Sing tribal get-togethers, Moka Compensation ceremonies, Bride-Price ceremonies and feasts. The man in the picture is a leader in the village and he is on his way to a compensation ceremony in which money and pigs will be exchanged for a land deal with another village. This convoluted process of compensation is part of the traditional way of life of village people. It is based on a system which addresses a community rather than individuals and is meant as an insurance system for the general well-being of all. In reality it limits access to education and medicine and is in many ways similar to compensation litigation in the USA. No-one benefits in the long term as individual efforts are closely monitored for flaws for which compensation is then sought, this often results in a one step forwards, two steps backwards mentality. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KISUMU, KENYA, 18 JUNE 2015: Kenyan farmer's and parents Norman and Akinyi Otieno mourn the loss of a child two weeks previously to Malaria. This is the second child they have lost to the disease. 5 million people are estimated to die annually from the disease, the rural poor of Africa are amongst the most vulnerable. Agnes Akoth Onyango, 57, is the Chief Nurse of the Walter Read Project, Kisumu, Kenya. Agnes is seen at the Kemri Insectology lab where mosquitos are specifically bred for Malaria research. Agnes has been a front line nurse in the fight against Malaria for over 31 years. She administers the staff at the Walter Read research facility and also has strong relations with the Kombewa District hospital. Agnes works with a number of field surveillance teams who monitor the population of the Nyanza province of Kenya, helping to maintain and update Walter Read’s case studies of over 40 years research into Malaria. Agnes supervises the teams, works with the laboratory staff and the local hospitals in keeping an up to date record on the progress of Malaria, staying one step ahead of the disease which kills over 5 million people annually. She also works with the Kemri group of disease research facilities in the Kisumu area. These provide a valuable database for the mutation of the Malaria parasite, helping to develop effective medication to combat the disease. Agnes has devoted her life to this theme, finding self-worth and tremendous satisfaction in her work. She is well know across her community and still finds time to go with surveillance teams to build case studies as well lecture on Malaria education when she can make the time. Agnes remains hopeful for the eradication of Malaria, believing a cure is within our grasp if research and funding is maintained. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: The Imam of the Djingareiber Mosque, Timbuktu's oldest and most important Islamic place of worship, seen during Ramadan, September 6, 2009. Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, Islam is at the heart of that learning as is medicine, science, law and technology. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

DONETSK, UKRAINE, SEPTEMBER 2011: A young Aids affected child in the home of his HIV+ drug addicted mother in their poverty stricken village on the first day of school, Donetsk, Ukraine, 1 September 2011. Ukraine is the most HIV infected nation in Europe today.

POLTAVA, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Scenes inside Poltava Tuberculosis clinic, a facility with insufficent resources which is the only facility for Tuberculosis patients in Poltava, Ukraine, 26 August 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: , September 7, 2009. Darhamane Moulaye Haidara, the director general of the Bibliotheque Sidi Zeiyane Haidara, a private library of ancient manuscripts in Timbuktu, September 7, 2009. He is aided by SAMAVA, an organisation dedicated to the preservation of these documents of Africa's written history. Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, Islam is at the heart of that learning as is medicine, science, law and technology. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

DUS, OMO VALLEY, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Karo people in the Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

ASSEKREM, TASSILI DU HOGGAR, SOUTHERN ALGERIA, APRIL 2009: Achmed, a Tuareg guide and elder photgraphed in a mountain cabin in the Tassili Du Hoggar, a series of beautiful rock plateaus that begin approximately 300km's south of Tamanrasset and extend all the way to the Niger border, 17 April 2009, Assekrem, Tassili Du Hoggar. These images were photographed from a small mountaintop cloister run by followers of the Frenchman Charles De Foucald. Foucald, once a hedonistic 19th century playboy, became devoutly religous and moved to Tamanrasset and in 1911 chose Assekrem as the site of his hermitage. He was assasinated by Tuaregs in 1916 after he was suspected of being a French spy. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

TIMBUKTU, MALI, JANUARY 2010: A young Tuareg artisan boy, Anara Ag Hamay Cisse, 13 years old, stands in the dunes outside of Timbuktu, the mythical Northern Mali city, January 18, 2010. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty images.)

RICHARDS BAY, SOUTH AFRICA-MAY 2004: A young aids orphan stands alone in a field after a church service. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

CAPE COAST, GHANA, JULY 2009: Anderson Cooper and crew in Ghana to interview President Barack Obama as he visits a former Slave Fortress on the Cape Coast of Ghana , July 11 2009. Slaves were interred at the fort throughout many years of slaving practise in Ghana's history. Obama was in Ghana as part of a three country tour with Ghana as the final stop. (Photo by Brent Stirton/CNN.)

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NAJAF, IRAQ - JUNE 21: General David Petraeus, the three star American General charged with over-seeing the transition of power from the Coalition military authorities to the Iraqis. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Iraq Assignment

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KARMA,IRAQ - MAY 27: Corporal Ernie Moreno, 22, of Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines. Moreno was one of the Marines heavily involved in the fighting in Fallujah when tensions between the Marines and the insurgents were at their peak. Moreno saw a fellow member of his squad badly wounded and when a rescue was attempted by another marine, that Marine was killed with a shot to the head. Fallujah saw one of the heaviest tolls exacted on the Marines during their time in Iraq.(Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Iraq Assignment

AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: War victim eight year old Abbas, is seen at the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010. Abbas was walking with his uncle in the Sa'ada region when his uncle stepped on a landmine and was blown to pieces. Shrapnel from the mine, ordinance from the war between Yemeni Government forces and the Al-Houthi Shiite group, sprayed into Abbas's chest and blinded him in one eye. Abbas's ten year old sister was also injured in the blast. They represent two of thousands of children at dire risk in this conflict. A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316 000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

BRIGHTON, MICHIGAN, USA, 25 MAY 2014: Ryan Groves is 27 years old and lives in Brighton, Michigan, where he participates in the Special Olympics while living with Tuberous Sclerosis. He is a track and field athlete and has won many medals at the Special Olympics. Some of Ryan’s resulting disorders associated with TSC include renal angiomyolipomas and mild autism. Ryan lives at home with his parents, Kathy and Bob, and has two older brothers as well as two pet dogs that he spends a great deal of time with. Ryan also works at a local supermarket chain called Krogers where he collects shopping trolleys and cleans the aisles. Ryan has benefitted from Afinitor, a drug made by Novartis which causes a significant reduction in tumors. This benefit for Ryan is actually a side bar discovery and not the original intent of the drug. It is an example of how research and development in the pharm world can lead to unexpected and beneficial discoveries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)

DHAKA, BANGLADESH, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the victims of acid attacks in a safe-house in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 20 December 2007. In this image 3 young women stand on a roof-top with pressure bandages on their ruined skin. The woman in the foreground was attacked 3 years ago while the two younger women are more recent victims. Acid violence is a particularly vicious and damaging form of violence in Bangladesh where acid is thrown in people’s faces. The overwhelming majority of the victims are women, and many of them are below 18 years of age. The victims are attacked for many reasons. In some cases it is because a young girl or women has spurned the sexual advances of a male or either she or her parents have rejected a proposal of marriage. Recently, however, there have been acid attacks on children, older women and also men. These attacks are often the result of family and land dispute, dowry demands or a desire for revenge. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)

SING RIVER, MINKEBI NATIONAL PARK, GABON, JUNE 2011: An anti-poaching team composed of Gabon Parcs personal, Gabon military, Baka pygmy porters and two Pirouge pilots conduct an anti-poaching mission up the Sing River in Minkebi National Park, Gabon, 26 June 2011. Gabon has recently seen a large spate of Elephant killings as a result of thousands of illegal goldminers that had flooded into the Minkebi region to exploit a lack of the rule of law in the reserve. Approximately a month ago the Gabonese military and Gabon Parcs Department conducted a large joint operation, inviting all these illegal miners to go home to their own countries or face detention. The presence of these illegals also created a thriving illegal ivory industry, fueled by the presence of Chinese traders in Gabon and neighbouring Congo Brazzaville and Cameroon. This expedition up the Sing River was to check for the presence of these illegals and to see if they were carrying out any poaching activity. There were no sightings and now only empty mining settelements remain. It appears the initial operations have put the word out and the illegal miners and poaching villages are no more in this region of Gabon. The operation involved travelling far up the Sing River in Minkbebi Park, cutting river pathways for the pirouges and doing a thorough check for poachers all the way up the river. There are plans for a permanent "Jungle Brigade" for this region within the next 6 months and that should safeguard the borders of Gabon and its wildlife from further poaching threats. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

GIR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, GUJARAT, INDIA, APRIL 9 2013: Amra Vejabhai, 71, is a Maldhari shepherd who lives with his family in a Maldhari community inside Gir Wildlife Sancturary, home to the Asiatic lion, the last lion outside of Africa inside Gir National Park, Gujarat, India, 9 April 2013. Ten years ago Amra was attacked by a lion while out with his buffalo and cows in the Sanctuary, the lion bit him on the neck when he tried to stop them killing a small buffalo. Amra was saved by his buffalo charging the lion which released him and ran. Amra claims he feels no ill will to the lions and sees them killing his cows and buffalo as just part of life in Gir, a place the Maldhari have inhabited with their cattle and buffalo for centuries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reporage for Terra Matte Magazine.)

RUMANGABO, NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-NOVEMBER 2008: ICCN Director of Virunga National Park Emmanuel De Merode photographed at Rumangabo Ranger Headquarters, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo on 24 November 2008. De Merode is a tireless and courageous advocate of conservation in the DRC and has been working in the Congo since 1992. De Merode is also a Prince of Belgium and is a direct descendant of Felix De Merode who led the Belguim rebellion of 1830. After a succesful campaign Felix decline the title of King of Belguim and Leopold the 1st came to power in Belguim. The Gorilla Sector of the Park has been occupied by the rebel movement CNDP under rebel Congolese Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda. Since September 2007 no ICCN Ranger has set foot in this sector, almost all had to flee the fighting and it has not been safe to return. Recent violence in the region has seen CNDP extend its power in the region and it now controls over 50% of the park and all of the Southern section. Emmanuel De Merode, the Director of Virunga National Park, has performed some remarkable diplomacy since the recent fighting and has succesfully negotiated with CNDP and General Nkunda to return the ICCN Rangers to the Park. This is a fragile process but so far 120 courageous Rangers are back at the Southern Headquarters at Rumangabo and there is a camp in the Gorilla Sector at Bukima which has begun a Gorilla census to determine the effects of the war on the mountain Gorilla population. It is a remarkable case of conservation winning out over politics. The DRC had just over 200 of the extremely rare mountain Gorillas, of which there are only 680 in the world. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: Members of Kawa Hunting Safaris skin and carry a Bongo Antelope deep inside the Chinko Reserve. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)

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DJANET, ALGERIA, APRIL 20: Images of Tuareg nomads in the desert outside the Tuareg town of Djanet, on April 20, 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

The 9th Ward, New Orleans, May 2008: Paul Vallas, the Superintendent of the Recovery School District, photographed contemplating the challenges before him while standing in the ruined gymnasium of Lawless High School in the 9th Ward, New Orleans, 18 May 2008. Lawless is one of the schools completely destroyed by the Hurricane and subsequent flooding. It is scheduled for demolition in the near future. New Orleans is still recovering from Hurricane Katrina and in the 9th ward there is still only one elementary school as opposed to the nine which existed before Katrina devastated the community. Despite this, many students have returned to nearby schools and are making good progress despite all the odds Katrina bestowed on education in New Orleans. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for the NY Times Magazine.)

New Delhi, India, June 2006: Trans-gendered sex-workers photographed at their home in a slum in Delhi. These men live as women and are all HIV+. They have all been using IV drugs and are now being taken care of by Sahara, an Indian NGO. These trans-gendered men are all the primary means of support for their families. In two cases here the men support a wife, a boyfriend, as well as three kids. With only their bodies as sexual collateral they form a very high risk group.

Bombay, India July 2006: Commercial Sex Workers on Falkland road, a long standing red light district in Bombay.

VATICAN CITY-ROME, SEPTEMBER 2005. A member of the Conclave to decide the next Pope, photographed at the Popes funeral in Rome 2005. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images)

MASAAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE, KENYA, FEBRUARY 2010. Samson Lenjirr, 41, the AG Chief Game Warden of the Mara Triangle Conservancy Masaai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 21 February 2010. Lenjirr has been an outspoken critic of the abundance of illegal safari lodges, camps and hotels in the reserve. He has campaigned for a proper land management plan from the Kenyan Government and spoken out fearlessly about corruption and the resulting overcrowding and ecologically unsound practises happening in the Mara today. There are currently 108 tourist operations in the greater Mara area, of which only 29% meet the legal standards to be in business. Lenjirr believes that unless something is done soon, the Mara will reach a tipping point from which there can be no return for arguably the most important wildlife reserve in the world. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images)

ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, 19 JUNE 2009: A long time MDC supporter, Chief Bota, is photographed next to his meagre hut in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe. Chief Bota is a Chief of Chiefs, meaning he comes from a long pedigree of Chiefs and leaders in rural Zaka who are responsible for appointing the local chiefs. He has remained a vocal supporter of oppostion party the MDC in his region, saying publicly that, "anyone who does not vote MDC is stupid." As a result of his support for the MDC he has been marginalised by the ruling Zanu PF party and not received the support or perks that Zanu PF has lavished on other leaders who are loyal to them. Chief Bota is a long time military man who wears his Second World War medals on his jacket pocket.

HARARE, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young MDC activist, 25, name withheld, sits quietly in a bedroom he rents in a shack in a makeshift township in Harare, Zimbabwe, 22 June 2009. The young man is the district security officer for the MDC in Harare East and for his political affiliation he has been arrested more than 15 times, he has been severely tortured on 4 occasions and has the scars on his body to prove it. He claims that electroshock was used on him in police cells and that he was repeatedly beaten with bike chains and iron bars. This has resulted in his diminished physical capacity which has made it very difficult for him to work. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Ismael Diadie Haidara, a scholar, philosopher and custodian of the Fondo Ka Ti manuscript library, Timbuktu, 12 September 2009. Ismael can trace his family back to Andalucia in Spain which they were forced to flee from Muslim Persecution in the days of the Catholic church's purges of Islam. Ismael's ancestor wrote a famous manuscript called the Tarik Al Fatah, a history of the Timbuktu region in the 15th and 16th century. This is regarded as one of the most important manuscripts to emerge in the recent interest in the written history of Africa centred in Timbuktu. Ismael spends his time on the library, studying philosophy and also in his village on the Niger River close to Timbuktu. He is unusual amongst Timbuktu intellectuals as he is also an environmentalist and has planted over 1000 trees in his village and plans to plant 9000 more. He petioned the President of MAli to allow him to pay his taxes in trees planted, but has had no reply to this request. He reads Walden and Thoureax and is a pacifist with no desire for an involvement in politics. His trips on the Niger river are symbolic of the thousands of scholars, philosophers and intellectuals who have made their way to Timbuktu via the river to attend this African centre for learning over the centuries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

LAKE TURKANA, NORTHERN KENYA, MAY 2010: Maeve Leakey, the first lady of East African Paleontolgy, seen at the Ileret Turkana Basin Institute in Lake Turkana in North Kenya, 20 May 2010. The Lake Turkana region is one of the greatest fossil fields in the world and the Institute seeks to employ as many local pastoralist people as it can as a way of translating the value of the area across multiple platforms, from academia, to tourism and local job creation. There are very few employment opportunities in this region and the pastoralist Dasenetch and Turkana people are very enthusiastic about the Institute as a result. There are plans to grow the Turkana Basin Institute significantly into an internationa phenomenon, this may being further jobs to the area for the local pastoralists. Climate change, globalisation, education, drought and overpopulation are just some of the reasons why pastoralist culture in Kenya is changing. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of The International Anti-Poaching Foundation leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of The International Anti-Poaching Foundation leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: Bienvenue Ndonondo, 43, Raymond Gbongbo, 56, and Herve' Gangbo, 37, are all newly appointed employees at the Chinko Project. They are all notorious elephant poachers, having killed over 250 elephants between them. Bienvenue, middle, was grieviously wounded by an outraged female elephant in 2011. She hit him repeately and then buried Bienvenue under a covering of leaves. It took 3 days for his friend to get Bienvenue to his village where his recovery took a further 8 months. It is hoped that the skills of these local hunters will prove a valuable asset for conservation at the Chinko Project. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)

DILABYNO, OMO VALLEY, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Beshadar people, closely related to the Hamar tribe, in a traditional bull-jumping ceremony in the Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. The bull-jumping ceremony is one of the most important in a man's life, and once completed allows him to take a wife and marry. The Hamar people and their tribal affiliates conduct a bull-jumping on a regular basis while the Karo people are much more selective in who they allow to bulljump and jump far less frequently. The ceremony is about hierachy and membership in the tribe and typically involves a young man who undergoes a number of rituals before he leaps onto and runs rapidly over a series of cattle held by other men who have recently jumped. Once completed he is a man in the eyes of the tribe. An important part of the ceremony is the ritualistic whipping which women actively seek out from certain men known as Mazha. The women harrass these men who then whip them once with a thin reed like stick before casting the stick away. The whipping causes bleeding and pain but the women look upon it as a sign of strength, loyalty and obligation to the bulljumper. They become incensed through a series of dances and then demand to be whipped in a macho, masochistic display. The resultant scars are worn as a badge of honor by many of the women. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

New Delhi India, June 2006: Sahara shelter for women in Delhi, the women who are housed here get six months in which to put their lives back together. Most of the women are sex workers and drug addicts and come from a terrible history of sexual violence and battery. Many of the women are in hiding from pimps and husbands.

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SANA'A, YEMEN - NOVEMBER 20 2005: Nasser Al Bahri photographed in his home in Sana'a, Yemen. Al Bahri is a former long serving body guard to Ossama Bin Laden and a former member of Al Qaeda. Al Bahri was a fervent Jihadi fighter for many years, supporting his muslim brothers in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Somalia, Chechnya and many other conflict zones. After a spell in prison, Al Bahri now preaches the word of the Koran as opposed to the word of the gun. He fears the naivety of young Jihadists and has been threatened by them for his change in attitude. He would like to see both sides in the current global conflict against terror come together to seek a peaceful resolution. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Guantanamo Prisoners Families

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KIEV, UKRAINE - AUGUST 23 2005: Volodian, 48, is a key member of a radical Aids advocacy group called "Eney," The group focuses tightly on vulnerable groups in Ukraine. A former addict, he quit 30 years ago and now conducts safe sex programmes with sex workers and needle exchange for drug addicts. He acts as a counsellor and is one of the few people in Ukraine who can comfortably bridge the gap between all vulnerable groups and be trusted by all. He has an 18 year old daughter who he credits as the source of his inspiration. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** AIDS

MANHATTAN NEW YORK - AUGUST 2011: Professor Irshad Manji, Human Rights Activist and Director of the Moral Courage Project at New York University, photographed overlooking Manhattan on 10 August 2011 in New York. Professor Manji is an outspoken liberal Muslim with a number of controversial books to her name. She is a lesbian and a strong advocate for the individual rights of women within Islam as well the presence of individual thought over dogma. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Newsweek Magazine.)

MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: Widows of SLDF leadership as well as from the civilian population photographed in an area notorious for conflict in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 11, 2011. This is a ongoing land conflict, the latest round instigated by in 2006 by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide up and resettle for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

ILERET, LAKE TURKANA, NORTHERN KENYA, MAY 2010: A Dasenetch pastoralist school in the Ileret district, Lake Turkana, North Kenya, 21 May 2010. Education is new for the Dasenetch and has been embraced over the last 20 years. It is primarily focused on boys, with only one girl in each of the senior classes at Ileret Primary school. This has to do with gender bias, early marriage and bride price. The Dasenetch are still coming to terms with the long term value of education for girls, who are 90% proven to return to their communities with their education and bring value to the community. Boys on the other hand are statistically 90% likely to move to larger centres and thus further erode the traditional way of life of these pastoralist people. There is also very little subsidy for children going on to high school, it costs in the region of $2000 to put a child through high school in Kenya and this is way beyond the financial reach of most pastoralist families. Thus, although their traditional lives are being eroded by globalisation, overpopulation, climate change and other factors, the Dasenetch and other pastoralist groups find themselves ill prepared in terms of education to cope with the transistion in their culture. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

Jim Denevan landscape artist

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BAGHDAD,IRAQ - MAY 16: The Arnold Classic Gym in Baghdad was founded in 1997 and has been the source of many of Iraq's body-building champions. Owner SahabTalib Mahdi is a former Asian champion and is a fanatical supporter of Arnold Schwartzenegger. The gym is a shrine to Arnold. Pictured from left are a host of Iraqi champions. Firas Jerges Aziz, 23, sitting, is a member of the Iraqi national team and the world youth champion for 2003. Hamid Abd Al-Rahman, 43, is a national trainer. Asad Hamid Jafar, 27, is lifting the weight over his head. He has been a member of the Iraqi national team for 7 years and is a three times winner of the Arabian Championship. The boy is Arnold Mahdi, the son of the owner and named after Arnold. The man to far right is Staar Atya Radi, the curent youth champion of Iraq. *** Local Caption *** Iraq Assignment

SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA, APRIL 2010: A young 15 year old Sowetan boy, Sabelo Mabuza, juggles a soccer ball with his head near his home in Soweto, one of South Africa's largest townships, 30 April 2010. South Africa is in the grip of Soccer fever as the World Cup draws closer to its opening ceremony in June at the newly built super-stadiums dotted around the country. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for Bloomberg Businessweek.)

AGADEZ REGION, NIGER, SEPTEMBER 2009: The Sultan of Agadez, Niger, 29 September 2009. The Sultan is not Tuareg but is chosen by the Tuareg as a neautral mediator between all three Kels of the Tuareg in the northern Niger region for the resolution of disputes and other mediations. His postion is solid evidence of the lack of unity between Tuareg tribes today. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

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Transvestites at home, portrait series in Johannesburg, South Africa

Numbers Gang member standing sentry, Manenberg, Cape Town, South Africa

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 OMARURU, NAMIBIA, 5 November 2015: Gerd Gamanab, 67, is a completely sightless man hoping for a miracle at a blindness camp in Omaruru District hospital in Namibia. He lost his sight to 50 years of farm labour in the Namibian sun and dust, which destroyed both of his corneas. This kind of blindness is the result of living in remote locations with prolonged exposure to fierce elements and no eye care anywhere nearby. A lack of education as to what was happening to his eyes also allowed this to occur. 
These camps are held all over Namibia and cater to sections of the population that do not receive regular eye care, mostly as a result of poverty. The applicant are screened and if the diagnosis is a mature cataract, they are selected as candidates for a simple operation which in fifteen minutes lends signicant sight to their world. The cataract is removed by a surgical vacuum and a new lens in inserted. Bandages are removed the next day and in most cases a real improvement in vision is the result. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
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 HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Pham, 32, a man born without eyes due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)
 ST PETERSBURG, FLORIDIA, USA, 21 MARCH 2016: Marine Cpl. Michael Jernigan was five weeks from leaving Iraq when an improvised explosive device mangled his right hand and left knee, shattered his entire forehead, destroyed both eyes and left him with a traumatic brain injury. The shrapnel from two rigged 105 shells blew him twenty meters out of the gun turret of the Humvee he was in, passing straight through his right eye and out of his left. This was on August 22, 2004. He became the first US serviceman to lose both eyes in combat in Iraq. Michael underwent 30 surgeries over 12 months enduring tremendous pain and trauma. He eventually had a Bilateral Anucleation where the remains of both eyes were removed and spacers were implanted. One of his optical nerves is badly damaged, the other remains intact. He has no sight whatsoever. Michael is seen in his hometown of St Petersburg, Florida with his new Guide dog “Treasure.” Mike was initially paired up with a guide dog from Southeastern Guide dogs in Florida and became involved with that organization. He helped start the Paws for Patriots non-profit program through the Southeastern Guide Dogs in Palmetto as well as the Paws for Independence. Today he is the associate director of philanthropy for Southeastern Guide dogs and lives in St Petersburg, Florida, where he grew up. His mission is to provide guide dogs to veterans who have lost their sight in the course of their duties. Michael has also completed a college degree and is a regular speaker on behalf of US veterans. The currents state of research in Blindness is moving forward at a rapid pace. Retinal implants combined with Stem Cell technology and Gene Therapy, the future may well offer whole eye replacement, a dream for many in the world of blindness. Michael remains philosophical about this. “I have been blind for 11 and a half years now. I’m okay with being blind, Organ regeneration was once Star-Trek stuff but I know that these days they are moving ahea
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 NEW YORK CITY, USA, 18 MARCH 2016: Sandford Greenberg and Art Garfunkel seen at their Alma Mater Columbia University. Greenberg lost his sight in his first few months at Columbia as a young man. Garfunkel was his room-mate at the time and went to help Greenberg climb out of his desperation at finding himself blind. They made a significant train journey back to NY city and once they reached Grand Central became separated and then Greenberg was forced to make his way to Columbia University alone as a blind man for the first time. When Greenberg finally reached Columbia he felt a touch on his arm and it turned out that Garfunkel had been alongside him the entire time. Greenberg sites this moment as when it first occurred to him that he was going to be fine despite his blindness. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 POLOKWANE, SOUTH AFRICA, 27 APRIL 2016: Dawie Groenewalt, South Africa's alleged Rhino horn kingpin and the subject of a 6 year old court case involving multiple charges related to illegal Rhino handling, horn theft, money laundering amongst other charges. He is seen on his game farm in Polokwane where he breeds high-end game for sale and hunting purposes. Groenewalt has also been charged and arrested in the USA on animal trophy charges. Groenwalt denies any wrong doing. He is also one of the driving forces behind the court effort to legalize the rhino trade in South Africa. Interestingly, if horn was to be legalized, most of his charges would disapear and he would be in a prime position as a breeder to make significant money from rhino horn. He owns two large properties for breeding and hunting purposes and he hosts many international hunters on those properties. In a small circle of breeders, vets, lawyers and hunters, Dawie is connected to many people in this world. He states freely that South Africa's recent decent not to apply to CITES for the legalization of horn is a death knell for rhino in the wild in South Africa. He further alleges that Kruger National Park, the largest repository for Rhino in the world, vastly over-reports their rhino numbers. Interestingly again, Kruger is Groenwalt's largest source for Rhino, he has won repeated tenders for rhino from the park. He is also connected to John Hume, the worlds largest Rhino breeder and one of three partners in Groenwalt's legal efforts to legalize Rhino horn for export to Asia. He claims to receive multiple calls from both Chinese and Vietnamese buyers on a monthly basis, all asking for horn. He also tells of taking representatives from both nations to John Hume's place and to show them Hume's cache of horns from dehorning. This cache is allegedly worth in excess of 300 000 000 South African Rand, around 20 million dollars. He argues in favour of breeding and dehorning for export, stating that John Hume al
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 VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, JANUARY 25 2015: Emmanuel De Merode, head warden of Virunga National Park, is seen in the Southern sector headquarters of Rumangabo with two of his permanent bodyguards. De Merode has worked inside Virunga since 1992 and has been present for all the trials and tribulations of Virunga since then. He has been head warden since 2008. He has negotiated with two major Rebel groups to keep access to the mountain gorillas of the region, he has dealt with the deaths of more than 170 of his Rangers. He has been a conservation visionary in securing funding to continue the running of Virunga and pioneered the building of sustainable hydroelectric projects to win the hearts of local communities and stave off the threat of oil exploration. De Merode was shot four times last year by three unknown men who are either linked to the FDLR rebel group or to Soco oil, a British oil compnay De Merode has been campaigning against. He was back in the park a month after he was shot despite warnings about his health and his safety. De Merode continues to spearhead the global campaign to protect Virunga, beloved by his men and one of the most respected conservation figues in the world.
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 PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, USA, 15 JULY 2015: Dr Carl June, head of the Cart19 cancer program at UPenn surveys the Philadelphia skyline from the construction platform for his new laboratory. The lab is being built with help from Novartis who have supported Dr June for a number of years. Dr June has pioneered new Gene therapy in the search for a cure for cancer, revolutionizing how we may come to conquer the disease. He and his team have developed a means by which to use the HIV virus as a targeting vector for cancer cells, allowing the patients own T-cells to go to war once they have been turned into super cells and re-injected into the patients body. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis.)
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 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Claysun Benally with his horse in Cameron, Arizona. Claysun is a strong believer in traditional Navajo values and along with his father keeps several horses on their property in Flagstaff. The Navajo have a long relationship with the wild horse, a relationship characterized by gentleness and agreement rather than breaking the horses spirti to the will of man. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
 VIVEKANANDA MISSION ASRAM, HALDIA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, JANUARY 14, 2016: A young boy with severely impaired vision seen in the hostel residence of the Vivekananda Mission Asram school for the blind. This is the highest rated school for blind children in India, the country with the highest number of blind people, arond 1% of their population, approximately 12 million people. Vivekanda Mission Asram provides care to some of the poorest of blind children, providing them with an education and tools for life survival once they leave the Asram after graduating. The children learn a normal school curiculum through braile and a team of dedicated teachers. Vocationa training is also available at the Asram in weaving, candle making amongst other skills that can add meaning to a blind life in India. Most of the blind in India end up as beggars, this school offers students a chance to be more than that. A number of their students have gone on to become senior teachers for sighted pupils, lawyers and business people. In these images the boys and girls are seen attending school lessons, learning Braille, music as well as scenes from their hostel residence and sports activities. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 KISUMU, KENYA, 21 JUNE 2015: Shelvine Achreng is sick with Leukemia and Sickle Cell disease. Her parents are impoverished farm labourers who cannot afford transport to the appropriate hospital, let alone the costs of treating Shelvine's condition. Victims of this kind of disease amongst Africa's poor are destined to die without outside intervention. Non-Communicable diseases like Cancer, Hypertension and Diabetes are on the rise in Africa, adding to the strain the more traditional diseases already place on populations. Poverty only serves to increase fatalities amongst the poorest of these. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)
 JUBA, SOUTH SUDAN, FEBRUARY 2013: Sister Felicita Humwara, the head of history and religious studies at Juba Day Secondary School, Juba, South Sudan, February 3, 2013. Sister Humwara has taken a special interest in early marriage students and students who have fallen pregnant while at school. This is not uncommon in South Sudan. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)
 LEBANON, TENNESSEE, USA, 30 MAY 2014: Whitney Lackey is a 17-year-old athlete living in Lebanon, Tennessee who participates in the Special Olympics while managing Tuberous Sclerosis. Whitney experiences renal angiomyolipomas, angiofibromas and cognitive delays associated with her TSC diagnosis. Whitney is an only child and lives at home with her parents, Sharon and Brent Lackey. Whitney has had multiple tumors all over her body since she was a baby and also suffers from seizures. Novartis makes a drug called Afinitor which was developed as a cancer medication. It has the unexpected effect of shrinking tumors in people with Tuberous Sclerosis. This underlines the importance of ongoing research and development for big Pharma, something Novartis does more of than any other pharmaceutical company. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)
 LEBANON, TENNESSEE, USA, 30 MAY 2014: Whitney Lackey is a 17-year-old athlete living in Lebanon, Tennessee who participates in the Special Olympics while managing Tuberous Sclerosis. Whitney experiences renal angiomyolipomas, angiofibromas and cognitive delays associated with her TSC diagnosis. Whitney is an only child and lives at home with her parents, Sharon and Brent Lackey. Whitney has had multiple tumors all over her body since she was a baby and also suffers from seizures. Novartis makes a drug called Afinitor which was developed as a cancer medication. It has the unexpected effect of shrinking tumors in people with Tuberous Sclerosis. This underlines the importance of ongoing research and development for big Pharma, something Novartis does more of than any other pharmaceutical company. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)
 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
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 VIVEKANANDA MISSION ASRAM, HALDIA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, JANUARY 14, 2016: Swami Biswanathanda, the religious leader of the Vivekananda Mission Asram school for the blind. He is seen at the temple complex located on the Mission grounds. This is one of the best schools for blind children in India, the country with the highest number of blind people, arond 1% of their population, approximately 12 million people. Vivekanda Mission Asram provides care to some of the poorest of blind children, providing them with an education and tools for life survival once they leave the Asram after graduating. The children learn a normal school curiculum through braile and a team of dedicated teachers. Vocationa training is also available at the Asram in weaving, candle making amongst other skills that can add meaning to a blind life in India. Most of the blind in India end up as beggars, this school offers students a chance to be more than that. A number of their students have gone on to become senior teachers for sighted pupils, lawyers and business people. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
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 MU CANG CHAI, YEN BAI, VIETNAM, 6 JUNE 2015: Dr Chang As Sinh, 37, updates his records in his office in the community hospital in the hills over Mu Cang Chai. Sinh has worked in this community for over 10 years and is the only doctor in the community. He speaks the local Hmong dialect and is instrumental in medical care delivery to this remote ethnic minority. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)
 ANCHORAGE, ALASKA, 1 March 2016: When Dan Bigley was 25 he lost life as he knew when a bear mauled him, leaving his face ruined and his eyes blind after the incident. After relearning everything from how to match his socks to how to make a living, Dan earned a masters degree in social work, got married and became a father to two children. He currently works with youth in need in Anchorage, Alaska. Medical science is moving forward at a rapid pace when it comes to rebuilding aspects of the cell building blocks that make up our organs. There is speculation within the industry that one day whole eye replacement may become a possibility. Dan would be the perfect candidate for that, as would children and veterans who lose their sight in combat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD, 7 JANUARY 2015: The "Wild Dog" Ranger horse patrol group as it prepares to leave for a week of anti poaching patrol at Zakouma National Park, Chad. The horse patrols are the old guard of Zakouma's rangers and have seen a good deal of conflict in their time in the park. Zakouma lost nearly 75% of its elephants in the decade before 2011 due to raids by Janajaweed and Sudanese poachers, many of them from the Sudanese military. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a big supporter of the elephant of Zakouma and of its elephants. The herds here until recently used to be as large as 1000 animals all moving together, severe poaching over the last decade saw that number decimated and now only around 20% of the number remains. Since 2011 however there has been control over poaching and there has not been a single elephant poached in the last 2 years. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a strong supporter of the park and Zakouma is on the upsurge in terms of its elephant population once again. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
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 VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DR CONGO, 26 NOVEMBER 2015: ICCN conservation rangers working as a bodyguard unit wait for a visit from the Minister of the Environment at Rumangabo Ranger Headquarters. Fighting in the region between FDLR rebels and Virunga's rangers continues to be a problem and bodyguard units are assigned to key wardens in the park. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 GULU, UGANDA: Margret Acino, 32, is one of hundreds of thousands of victims of the L.R.A; a rebel group that now relies heavily on ivory to fund their terror campaign. She was attacked by members of the Lord’s Resistance Army when she was 23 and 9 months pregnant. Her lips, ears and nose were cut off and her breasts were hacked off by the rebels. Margret and a small group of villagers had gone to the fields for crops when they found themselves surrounded. They were taken quickly to an area outside of Gulu where the men accused them of informing on the LRA to the Ugandan Army. Two men and a child were then immediately killed with the hoes they had been carrying for farming. The commander of the rebels accused them again, confronting Margaret and accusing her of being the wife of a soldier. Her husband was in fact a simple farmer. The LRA commander then killed another women in front of her. He said this must be the truth or how could she be so confident in talking with them. He then said he would teach her not to inform ever again. He ordered his men, mostly young teenagers, to produce a razor blade. They hesitated and the commander then threatened his own men, one of them then produced a razor blade and they were ordered to cut off Margret’s lips, ears and nose, a practice that was an LRA trademark at the time. When the men were finished, Margret was released and told to run. She passed out from loss of blood shortly thereafter and when she revived she found a man with a bicycle who took her to an IDP. She was in surgery for 2 days, her baby was born via an emergency caesarian and Margret then lapsed into a coma for 5 days. She has had 7 surgeries since to try to repair her ravaged face. The LRA commander who ordered this brutality subsequently defected and was given amnesty. Margaret saw him at a World Vision camp and became hysterical, telling people he was the one behind her tragedy. He was moved from the camp but not prosecuted. Margret has subsequently forgi
 ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD, 6 JANUARY 2015: Djime Said, 50, the lone survivor of the Ranger massacre at Heban, Chad, on the 3rd September 2012. The rangers were killed by poachers who were members of the Sudanese military. They killed the rangers because a few weeks earlier, the Rangers had found their camp and taken all their ammunition, horse and provisions. The attack occured in the very early morning when it was still dark and the Rangers were sleeping. Djime Said was employed as a cook with them in the rainy season. He said there was suddenly heavy firing out of nowhere and he found himself rolling down the steep hill that made up the Ranger post at Heban. He was shot in the buttocks but managed to hide away for the day and then come back to the camp that night where he confirmed all were dead and the camp looted. Said spend the next week trying to get to help, two days of which were spent wading through a dense swamp on his way to aid. He received $2000 compensation from the Chadian government for his injuries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 NANDUMA, CHAD, 12 JANUARY 2015: Zakouma National Park Rangers interact easily with the men of a Nomad camp close to Zakouma National Park. The Park has developed good relations with the nomads and they share an intelligence network which has helped to prevent poaching. A number of Rangers come from these communities and have close ties. Zakouma is recovering from a ten year period where from 2012 to 2012 they lost 90% of their elephants, almost 4000 elephant. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA, 13 APRIL 2014: Images from a multi-tribe Pow Wow held in Flagstaff Arizona. These dancers come from all over America, the portraits are of Navajo dancers. Their costumes are not traditional however and have come to portray an almost "Super-Indian" collective today. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Figaro Magazine.)
 FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA, 13 APRIL 2014: Images from a multi-tribe Pow Wow held in Flagstaff Arizona. These dancers come from all over America, the portraits are of Navajo dancers. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Figaro Magazine.)
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 OSAKA, JAPAN, 19 OCTOBER 2014: Sensei Fumon Tanaka, 73, Samurai master and descendent of a long and distinguished line of Samurai warriors in Japan. He is seen at a temple complex in Osaka, Japan. Sensei Tanaka is somewhat controversial amongst the pursuants of the Samurai arts in that he embraces the media and has appeared in films, documentaries and commercials all showcasing his Samurai martial arts skills. This is controversial in Samurai culture as many pursuants believe in secrecy and humbleness and not in ostentatious display.
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 VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 12, plays by herself on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few proper burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. Kumkum will first have her hands repaired to offer some use and then her face and body will be attended to. It will require at least a year of surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something she would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.
 VARANASI, INDIA, 5 SEPTEMBER 2014: VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 13, poses on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. She is seen 10 months after she first underwent surgery to heal her terrible burns. This is one of the very few facilities in India to offer plastic surgery to the poor. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few hospital burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. It will require at least 5 years of succesive surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something Kumkum would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.
 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 2010: CollenMashawana, 28, the successful co-owner of Vharanani Consulting, an IT firm specialising in consulting work for the South African government, 4 May 2010, Johannesburg, South Africa. {Phone Collen at +27 116561418/+27 11 6563553 if you would like to interview him.} (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for Bloomberg Businessweek.)
 Turkana, North Kenya, October 9 2014: A severely malnourished Turkana child who’s family has been driven out of their traditional land by invading Dassanech from Southern Ethiopia. The Dassanech have themselves been forced to relocate by new Ethiopian Sugar Cane farms and Dam projects which have reduced the flow of water in the Omo river by four fifths of its usual size. This is now affecting over 600 000 armed tribesmen on both side of the Ethiopia/Kenya border and conflict is increasingly the norm.
 The youngest patient ever to use a Berlin Heart, a device which replaces your own heart while waiting for an operation or a transplant.  The Berlin Heart is located outside of the body. Tragically, this young boy lived only a year or so after his final procedure, when he died of an opportunistic infection. He was a huge WWF wrestling fan.
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 WEST BENGAL, INDIA 28 OCTOBER 2013: Sonia Singh explores the beginning of sight as she runs her hands through bullrushes close to her village after undergoing eye surgery. Both Sonia, 12, and her younger sister Anita, 5, are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness and they will need to excercise their new eyes for at least six months before their sight approximates normal. The surgery to cure cataract blindness is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.
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 MUZZAFARPUR, INDIA, 5 SEPTEMBER 2014: Ragini Kumari, 10, was badly burnt by a Kerosene fire when she was 2 years old, she is one of over 6 million people burnt in India every year. Ragini has suffered constrictions of her neck and shoulders and lived in a permanently cramped and restricted postion ever since. Her family is deeply impoverished and like millions of India's poor she has been unable to secure the necessary surgery. Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh, found Ragini at a burns camp he held in her area and has arranged for her to attend his clinic where he performs free surgery for the poorest of the poor of India. She is seen at her home before surgery and on her journey to his clinic in Varnasi, India. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 Blind albino schoolboys pose at their boarding school at the Vivekananda Mission School for the Blind - India, West Bengal, September 15, 2014.
 Blind albino schoolboys pose at their boarding school at the Vivekananda Mission School for the Blind - India, West Bengal, September 15, 2014.
 MICHIGAN-DEARBORN, USA- OCTOBER 2007: Scenes from the Republican Presidential Candidates Debate in Michigan-Dearborn, USA, 8 October 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images)
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 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA-JANUARY 2002: A masked man recovers from a severe Sadism and Masochism session with his Mistress at a house in suburban Johannesburg. During this session he was whipped and burnt with a cigar. This is the only means by which he finds a sense of self-worth. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES
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 CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: A research trip led by biologist Thierry Aebischer and Special Projects manager Raffael Hickisch. The purpose of this trip was to monitor and retrieve camera trap footage and look for Chimpanzees. Thierry and Raffael have walked the entire Chinko area for the last 4 years, conducting unique research despite the dangers of different armed groups including the notorious LRA. They have compiled over 700 000 camera traps images which serve to illustrate the remaining wildlife and why this region is worth saving. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)
 LAKE TURKANA, NORTHERN KENYA, MAY 2010: A blind and mentally handicapped Dasenetch man, Michael, 20, in Lake Turkana North Kenya, 20 May 2010. A lack of any access to medical care resulted in brain damage when Michael was born. It remains an important priority for pastoralist tribes all over Kenya to have access to medical care in their communities in order to secure the well being of their people. The cost of this is driving many pastoralists to abandon traditional cattle practises and adopt other economic pursuits in order to cope with the pressures of their changing lives.
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 SOCHI, RUSSIA, NOVEMBER 2012: Advocate Igor Kukochkin is one the very few lawyers in Russia prepared to defend those who have been illegally evicted and their homes destroyed to make way for Olympics construction in Sochi, Russia, November 26, 2012. His lonely stance highlights the lack of legal transparency in the process and in addition, the use of threats and intimidation to force people from their homes and the legal profession away from defending them. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)
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 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Jones Benally, a famous medicine man, dances the Navajo Hoop dance in a small canyon in the badlands of Cameron, Arizona. The hoop dance is traditionally performed at the end of a grueling nine day ceremony and is a form of storytelling dance representing various animals, symbols and storytelling elements, all representing the never ending circle of life for the Navajo. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
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Yemen and the Guantanamo connection
 ZAGADO, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of MNJ breakaway faction leader and Tuareg Rissa ag Boula, a former  Niger Army commander and Minister of Tourism photographed in Zagado, Nothern Niger, 7 April 2009. Boula is now on the run himself from the French as well as Niger forces. He has gone back to his own people and joined the Tuareg rebellion although it is under some scepticism from other MNJ leaders. He has a reputation as a fierce fighter and is seen with his sniper rifle. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 Iraqi Olympic Wrestling champion
 “Americans” prison gang leader, Cape Town South Africa.
 LORYRA, SOUTH OMO, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Dassanech people in the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 A village women with skin condition, Northern Ghana
 WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 25 SEPTEMBER 2013: A blind albino schoolboy at the Vivekananda Mission school for the blind, West Bengal, India.
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 HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Kein, 25, a man born with birth defects due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)
 MINDIMA VILLAGE, CHIMBU PROVINCE, HIGHLANDS, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-DECEMBER 2008: A traditionally dressed elder in a village in Chimbu Province, Highlands, Papua New Guinea, 18 December 2008.  These outfits will be worn only on special occasions, namely Sing-Sing tribal get-togethers, Moka Compensation ceremonies, Bride-Price ceremonies and feasts. The man in the picture is a leader in the village and he is on his way to a compensation ceremony in which money and pigs will be exchanged for a land deal with another village. This convoluted process of compensation is part of the traditional way of life of village people. It is based on a system which addresses a community rather than individuals and is meant as an insurance system for the general well-being of all. In reality it limits access to education and medicine and is in many ways similar to compensation litigation in the USA. No-one benefits in the long term as individual efforts are closely monitored for flaws for which compensation is then sought, this often results in a one step forwards, two steps backwards mentality. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 KISUMU, KENYA, 18 JUNE 2015: Kenyan farmer's and parents Norman and Akinyi Otieno mourn the loss of a child two weeks previously to Malaria. This is the second child they have lost to the disease. 5 million people are estimated to die annually from the disease, the rural poor of Africa are amongst the most vulnerable. Agnes Akoth Onyango, 57, is the Chief Nurse of the Walter Read Project, Kisumu, Kenya. Agnes is seen at the Kemri Insectology lab where mosquitos are specifically bred for Malaria research. Agnes has been a front line nurse in the fight against Malaria for over 31 years. She administers the staff at the Walter Read research facility and also has strong relations with the Kombewa District hospital. Agnes works with a number of field surveillance teams who monitor the population of the Nyanza province of Kenya, helping to maintain and update Walter Read’s case studies of over 40 years research into Malaria. Agnes supervises the teams, works with the laboratory staff and the local hospitals in keeping an up to date record on the progress of Malaria, staying one step ahead of the disease which kills over 5 million people annually. She also works with the Kemri group of disease research facilities in the Kisumu area. These provide a valuable database for the mutation of the Malaria parasite, helping to develop effective medication to combat the disease. Agnes has devoted her life to this theme, finding self-worth and tremendous satisfaction in her work. She is well know across her community and still finds time to go with surveillance teams to build case studies as well lecture on Malaria education when she can make the time. Agnes remains hopeful for the eradication of Malaria, believing a cure is within our grasp if research and funding is maintained. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)
 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: The Imam of the Djingareiber Mosque, Timbuktu's oldest and most important Islamic place of worship, seen during Ramadan, September 6, 2009.  Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, Islam is at the heart of that learning as is medicine, science, law and technology. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
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 DONETSK, UKRAINE, SEPTEMBER 2011: A young Aids affected child in the home of his HIV+ drug addicted mother in their poverty stricken village on the first day of school, Donetsk, Ukraine, 1 September 2011. Ukraine is the most HIV infected nation in Europe today.
 POLTAVA, UKRAINE,  AUGUST 2011: Scenes inside Poltava Tuberculosis clinic, a facility with insufficent resources which is the only facility for Tuberculosis patients in Poltava, Ukraine, 26 August 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: , September 7, 2009.  Darhamane Moulaye Haidara, the director general of the Bibliotheque Sidi Zeiyane Haidara, a private library of ancient manuscripts in Timbuktu, September 7, 2009. He is aided by SAMAVA, an organisation dedicated to the preservation of these documents of Africa's written history. Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, Islam is at the heart of that learning as is medicine, science, law and technology. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 DUS, OMO VALLEY, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Karo people in the Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
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 ASSEKREM, TASSILI DU HOGGAR, SOUTHERN ALGERIA, APRIL 2009: Achmed, a Tuareg guide and elder photgraphed in a mountain cabin in the Tassili Du Hoggar, a series of beautiful rock plateaus that begin approximately 300km's south of Tamanrasset and extend all the way to the Niger border, 17 April 2009, Assekrem, Tassili Du Hoggar. These images were photographed from a small mountaintop cloister run by followers of the Frenchman Charles De Foucald. Foucald, once a hedonistic 19th century playboy, became devoutly religous and moved to Tamanrasset and in 1911 chose Assekrem as the site of his hermitage. He was assasinated by Tuaregs in 1916 after he was suspected of being a French spy. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 TIMBUKTU, MALI,  JANUARY 2010: A young Tuareg artisan boy, Anara Ag Hamay Cisse, 13 years old, stands in the dunes outside of Timbuktu, the mythical Northern Mali city,  January 18, 2010. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty images.)
 RICHARDS BAY, SOUTH AFRICA-MAY 2004: A young aids orphan stands alone in a field after a church service. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.
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 CAPE COAST, GHANA, JULY 2009: Anderson Cooper and crew in Ghana to interview President Barack Obama as he visits a former Slave Fortress on the Cape Coast of Ghana , July 11 2009.  Slaves were interred at the fort throughout many years of slaving practise in Ghana's history. Obama was in Ghana as part of a three country tour with Ghana as the final stop. (Photo by Brent Stirton/CNN.)
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 AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: War victim eight year old Abbas, is seen at the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010.  Abbas was walking with his uncle in the Sa'ada region when his uncle stepped on a landmine and was blown to pieces. Shrapnel from the mine, ordinance from the war between Yemeni Government forces and the Al-Houthi Shiite group, sprayed into Abbas's chest and blinded him in one eye. Abbas's ten year old sister was also injured in the blast. They represent two of thousands of children at dire risk in this conflict. A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316 000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 BRIGHTON, MICHIGAN, USA, 25 MAY 2014: Ryan Groves is 27 years old and lives in Brighton, Michigan, where he participates in the Special Olympics while living with Tuberous Sclerosis. He is a track and field athlete and has won many medals at the Special Olympics. Some of Ryan’s resulting disorders associated with TSC include renal angiomyolipomas and mild autism. Ryan lives at home with his parents, Kathy and Bob, and has two older brothers as well as two pet dogs that he spends a great deal of time with. Ryan also works at a local supermarket chain called Krogers where he collects shopping trolleys and cleans the aisles. Ryan has benefitted from Afinitor, a drug made by Novartis which causes a significant reduction in tumors. This benefit for Ryan is actually a side bar discovery and not the original intent of the drug. It is an example of how research and development in the pharm world can lead to unexpected and beneficial discoveries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)
 DHAKA, BANGLADESH, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the victims of acid attacks in a safe-house in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 20 December 2007.  In this image 3 young women stand on a roof-top with pressure bandages on their ruined skin. The woman in the foreground was attacked 3 years ago while the two younger women are more recent victims. Acid violence is a particularly vicious and damaging form of violence in Bangladesh where acid is thrown in people’s faces. The overwhelming majority of the victims are women, and many of them are below 18 years of age. The victims are attacked for many reasons. In some cases it is because a young girl or women has spurned the sexual advances of a male or either she or her parents have rejected a proposal of marriage. Recently, however, there have been acid attacks on children, older women and also men. These attacks are often the result of family and land dispute, dowry demands or a desire for revenge.
(Photo by Brent Stirton.)
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 SING RIVER, MINKEBI NATIONAL PARK, GABON, JUNE 2011: An anti-poaching team composed of Gabon Parcs personal, Gabon military, Baka pygmy porters and two Pirouge pilots conduct an anti-poaching mission up the Sing River in Minkebi National Park, Gabon, 26 June 2011. Gabon has recently seen a large spate of Elephant killings as a result of thousands of illegal goldminers that had flooded into the Minkebi region to exploit a lack of the rule of law in the reserve. Approximately a month ago the Gabonese military and Gabon Parcs Department conducted a large joint operation, inviting all these illegal miners to go home to their own countries or face detention. The presence of these illegals also created a thriving illegal ivory industry, fueled by the presence of Chinese traders in Gabon and neighbouring Congo Brazzaville and Cameroon. This expedition up the Sing River was to check for the presence of these illegals and to see if they were carrying out any poaching activity. There were no sightings and now only empty mining settelements remain. It appears the initial operations have put the word out and the illegal miners and poaching villages are no more in this region of Gabon. The operation involved travelling far up the Sing River in Minkbebi Park, cutting river pathways for the pirouges and doing a thorough check for poachers all the way up the river. There are plans for a permanent "Jungle Brigade"  for this region within the next 6 months and that should safeguard the borders of Gabon and its wildlife from further poaching threats. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
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 GIR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, GUJARAT, INDIA, APRIL 9 2013: Amra Vejabhai, 71, is a Maldhari shepherd who lives with his family in a Maldhari community inside Gir Wildlife Sancturary, home to the Asiatic lion, the last lion outside of Africa inside Gir National Park, Gujarat, India, 9 April 2013. Ten years ago Amra was attacked by a lion while out with his buffalo and cows in the Sanctuary, the lion bit him on the neck when he tried to stop them killing a small buffalo. Amra was saved by his buffalo charging the lion which released him and ran. Amra claims he feels no ill will to the lions and sees them killing his cows and buffalo as just part of life in Gir, a place the Maldhari have inhabited with their cattle and buffalo for centuries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reporage for Terra Matte Magazine.)
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 RUMANGABO, NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-NOVEMBER 2008: ICCN Director of Virunga National Park Emmanuel De Merode photographed at Rumangabo Ranger Headquarters, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo on 24 November 2008. De Merode is a tireless and courageous advocate of conservation in the DRC and has been working in the Congo since 1992. De Merode is also a Prince of Belgium and is a direct descendant of Felix De Merode who led the Belguim rebellion of 1830. After a succesful campaign Felix decline the title of King of Belguim and Leopold the 1st came to power in Belguim. The Gorilla Sector of the Park has been occupied by the rebel movement CNDP under rebel Congolese Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda. Since September 2007 no ICCN Ranger has set foot in this sector, almost all had to flee the fighting and it has not been safe to return. Recent violence in the region has seen CNDP extend its power in the region and it now controls over 50% of the park and all of the Southern section. Emmanuel De Merode, the Director of Virunga National Park, has performed some remarkable diplomacy since the recent fighting and has succesfully negotiated with CNDP and General Nkunda to return the ICCN Rangers to the Park. This is a fragile process but so far 120 courageous Rangers are back at the Southern Headquarters at Rumangabo and there is a camp in the Gorilla Sector at Bukima which has begun a Gorilla census to determine the effects of the war on the mountain Gorilla population. It is a remarkable case of conservation winning out over politics. The DRC had just over 200 of the extremely rare mountain Gorillas, of which there are only 680 in the world. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)
 CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: Members of Kawa Hunting Safaris skin and carry a Bongo Antelope deep inside the Chinko Reserve. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)
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 DJANET, ALGERIA, APRIL 20: Images of Tuareg nomads in the desert outside the Tuareg town of Djanet, on April 20, 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
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 The 9th Ward, New Orleans, May 2008: Paul Vallas, the Superintendent of the Recovery School District, photographed contemplating the challenges before him while standing in the ruined gymnasium of Lawless High School in the 9th Ward, New Orleans, 18 May 2008. Lawless is one of the schools completely destroyed by the Hurricane and subsequent flooding. It is scheduled for demolition in the near future.  New Orleans is still recovering from Hurricane Katrina and in the 9th ward there is still only one elementary school as opposed to the nine which existed before Katrina devastated the community. Despite this, many students have returned to nearby schools and are making good progress despite all the odds Katrina bestowed on education in New Orleans.  (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for the NY Times Magazine.)
 New Delhi, India, June 2006: Trans-gendered sex-workers photographed at their home in a slum in Delhi. These men live as women and are all HIV+. They have all been using IV drugs and are now being taken care of by Sahara, an Indian NGO. These trans-gendered men are all the primary means of support for their families. In two cases here the men support a wife, a boyfriend, as well as three kids. With only their bodies as sexual collateral they form a very high risk group.
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 Bombay, India July 2006: Commercial Sex Workers on Falkland road, a long standing red light district in Bombay.
 VATICAN CITY-ROME, SEPTEMBER 2005. A member of the Conclave to decide the next Pope, photographed at the Popes funeral in Rome 2005. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images)
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 MASAAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE, KENYA, FEBRUARY 2010. Samson Lenjirr, 41, the AG Chief Game Warden of the Mara Triangle Conservancy Masaai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 21 February 2010. Lenjirr has been an outspoken critic of the abundance of illegal safari lodges, camps and hotels in the reserve. He has campaigned for a proper land management plan from the Kenyan Government and spoken out fearlessly about corruption and the resulting overcrowding and ecologically unsound practises happening in the Mara today. There are currently 108 tourist operations in the greater Mara area, of which only 29% meet the legal standards to be in business. Lenjirr believes that unless something is done soon, the Mara will reach a tipping point from which there can be no return for arguably the most important wildlife reserve in the world. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images)
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 ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, 19 JUNE 2009: A long time MDC supporter, Chief Bota, is photographed next to his meagre hut in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe. Chief Bota is a Chief of Chiefs, meaning he comes from a long pedigree of Chiefs and leaders in rural Zaka who are responsible for appointing the local chiefs. He has remained a vocal supporter of oppostion party the MDC in his region, saying publicly that, "anyone who does not vote MDC is stupid."  As a result of his support for the MDC he has been marginalised by the ruling Zanu PF party and not received the support or perks that Zanu PF has lavished on other leaders who are loyal to them. Chief Bota is a long time military man who wears his Second World War medals on his jacket pocket.
 HARARE, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young MDC activist, 25, name withheld, sits quietly in a bedroom he rents in a shack in a makeshift township in Harare, Zimbabwe, 22 June 2009. The young man is the district security officer for the MDC in Harare East and for his political affiliation he has been arrested more than 15 times, he has been severely tortured on 4 occasions and has the scars on his body to prove it. He claims that electroshock was used on him in police cells and that he was repeatedly beaten with bike chains and iron bars. This has resulted in his diminished physical capacity which has made it very difficult for him to work. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Ismael Diadie Haidara, a scholar, philosopher and custodian of the Fondo Ka Ti manuscript library, Timbuktu, 12 September 2009. Ismael can trace his family back to Andalucia in Spain which they were forced to flee from Muslim Persecution in the days of the Catholic church's purges of Islam. Ismael's ancestor wrote a famous manuscript called the Tarik Al Fatah, a history of the Timbuktu region in the 15th and 16th century. This is regarded as one of the most important manuscripts to emerge in the recent interest in the written history of Africa centred in Timbuktu. Ismael spends his time on the library, studying philosophy and also in his village on the Niger River close to Timbuktu. He is unusual amongst Timbuktu intellectuals as he is also an environmentalist and has planted over 1000 trees in his village and plans to plant 9000 more. He petioned the President of MAli to allow him to pay his taxes in trees planted, but has had no reply to this request. He reads Walden and Thoureax and is a pacifist with no desire for an involvement in politics. His trips on the Niger river are symbolic of the thousands of scholars, philosophers and intellectuals who have made their way to Timbuktu via the river to attend this African centre for learning over the centuries. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 LAKE TURKANA, NORTHERN KENYA, MAY 2010: Maeve Leakey, the first lady of East African Paleontolgy, seen at the Ileret Turkana Basin Institute in Lake Turkana in North Kenya, 20 May 2010. The Lake Turkana region is one of the greatest fossil fields in the world and the Institute seeks to employ as many local pastoralist people as it can as a way of translating the value of the area across multiple platforms, from academia, to tourism and local job creation. There are very few employment opportunities in this region and the pastoralist Dasenetch and Turkana people are very enthusiastic about the Institute as a result. There are plans to grow the Turkana Basin Institute significantly into an internationa phenomenon, this may being further jobs to the area for the local pastoralists. Climate change, globalisation, education, drought and overpopulation are just some of the reasons why pastoralist culture in Kenya is changing. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of The International Anti-Poaching Foundation leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of The International Anti-Poaching Foundation leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
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 CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: Bienvenue Ndonondo, 43, Raymond Gbongbo, 56, and Herve' Gangbo, 37, are all newly appointed employees at the Chinko Project. They are all notorious elephant poachers, having killed over 250 elephants between them. Bienvenue, middle, was grieviously wounded by an outraged female elephant in 2011. She hit him repeately and then buried Bienvenue under a covering of leaves. It took 3 days for his friend to get Bienvenue to his village where his recovery took a further 8 months. It is hoped that the skills of these local hunters will prove a valuable asset for conservation at the Chinko Project. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)
 DILABYNO, OMO VALLEY, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Beshadar people, closely related to the Hamar tribe, in a traditional bull-jumping ceremony in the Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. The bull-jumping ceremony is one of the most important in a man's life, and once completed allows him to take a wife and marry. The Hamar people and their tribal affiliates conduct a bull-jumping on a regular basis while the Karo people are much more selective in who they allow to bulljump and jump far less frequently. The ceremony is about hierachy and membership in the tribe and typically involves a young man who undergoes a number of rituals before he leaps onto and runs rapidly over a series of cattle held by other men who have recently jumped. Once completed he is a man in the eyes of the tribe. An important part of the ceremony is the ritualistic whipping which women actively seek out from certain men known as Mazha. The women harrass these men who then whip them once with a thin reed like stick before casting the stick away. The whipping causes bleeding and pain but the women look upon it as a sign of strength, loyalty and obligation to the bulljumper. They become incensed through a series of dances and then demand to be whipped in a macho, masochistic display. The resultant scars are worn as a badge of honor by many of the women.  (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
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 New Delhi India, June 2006: Sahara shelter for women in Delhi, the women who are housed here get six months in which to put their lives back together. Most of the women are sex workers and drug addicts and come from a terrible history of sexual violence and battery. Many of the women are in hiding from pimps and husbands.
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 MANHATTAN NEW YORK - AUGUST 2011: Professor Irshad Manji, Human Rights Activist and Director of the Moral Courage Project at New York University, photographed overlooking Manhattan on 10 August 2011 in New York. Professor Manji is an outspoken liberal Muslim with a number of controversial books to her name. She is a lesbian and a strong advocate for the individual rights of women within Islam as well the presence of individual thought over dogma. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Newsweek Magazine.)
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 MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: Widows of SLDF leadership as well as from the civilian population photographed in an area notorious for conflict in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 11, 2011. This is a ongoing land conflict, the latest round instigated by in 2006 by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide up and resettle for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)
 ILERET, LAKE TURKANA, NORTHERN KENYA, MAY 2010: A Dasenetch pastoralist school in the Ileret district, Lake Turkana, North Kenya, 21 May 2010. Education is new for the Dasenetch and has been embraced over the last 20 years. It is primarily focused on boys, with only one girl in each of the senior classes at Ileret Primary school. This has to do with gender bias, early marriage and bride price. The Dasenetch are still coming to terms with the long term value of education for girls, who are 90% proven to return to their communities with their education and bring value to the community. Boys on the other hand are statistically 90% likely to move to larger centres and thus further erode the traditional way of life of these pastoralist people. There is also very little subsidy for children going on to high school, it costs in the region of $2000 to put a child through high school in Kenya and this is way beyond the financial reach of most pastoralist families. Thus, although their traditional lives are being eroded by globalisation, overpopulation, climate change and other factors, the Dasenetch and other pastoralist groups find themselves ill prepared in terms of education to cope with the transistion in their culture. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA, APRIL 2010: A young 15 year old Sowetan boy, Sabelo Mabuza, juggles a soccer ball with his head near his home in Soweto, one of South Africa's largest townships, 30 April 2010. South Africa is in the grip of Soccer fever as the World Cup draws closer to its opening ceremony in June at the newly built super-stadiums dotted around the country. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for Bloomberg Businessweek.)
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 AGADEZ REGION, NIGER, SEPTEMBER 2009: The Sultan of Agadez, Niger, 29 September 2009. The Sultan is not Tuareg but is chosen by the Tuareg as a neautral mediator between all three Kels of the Tuareg in the northern Niger region for the resolution of disputes and other mediations. His postion is solid evidence of the lack of unity between Tuareg tribes today. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
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 Transvestites at home, portrait series in Johannesburg, South Africa
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 Numbers Gang member standing sentry, Manenberg, Cape Town, South Africa
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OMARURU, NAMIBIA, 5 November 2015: Gerd Gamanab, 67, is a completely sightless man hoping for a miracle at a blindness camp in Omaruru District hospital in Namibia. He lost his sight to 50 years of farm labour in the Namibian sun and dust, which destroyed both of his corneas. This kind of blindness is the result of living in remote locations with prolonged exposure to fierce elements and no eye care anywhere nearby. A lack of education as to what was happening to his eyes also allowed this to occur. These camps are held all over Namibia and cater to sections of the population that do not receive regular eye care, mostly as a result of poverty. The applicant are screened and if the diagnosis is a mature cataract, they are selected as candidates for a simple operation which in fifteen minutes lends signicant sight to their world. The cataract is removed by a surgical vacuum and a new lens in inserted. Bandages are removed the next day and in most cases a real improvement in vision is the result. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Pham, 32, a man born without eyes due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)

ST PETERSBURG, FLORIDIA, USA, 21 MARCH 2016: Marine Cpl. Michael Jernigan was five weeks from leaving Iraq when an improvised explosive device mangled his right hand and left knee, shattered his entire forehead, destroyed both eyes and left him with a traumatic brain injury. The shrapnel from two rigged 105 shells blew him twenty meters out of the gun turret of the Humvee he was in, passing straight through his right eye and out of his left. This was on August 22, 2004. He became the first US serviceman to lose both eyes in combat in Iraq. Michael underwent 30 surgeries over 12 months enduring tremendous pain and trauma. He eventually had a Bilateral Anucleation where the remains of both eyes were removed and spacers were implanted. One of his optical nerves is badly damaged, the other remains intact. He has no sight whatsoever. Michael is seen in his hometown of St Petersburg, Florida with his new Guide dog “Treasure.” Mike was initially paired up with a guide dog from Southeastern Guide dogs in Florida and became involved with that organization. He helped start the Paws for Patriots non-profit program through the Southeastern Guide Dogs in Palmetto as well as the Paws for Independence. Today he is the associate director of philanthropy for Southeastern Guide dogs and lives in St Petersburg, Florida, where he grew up. His mission is to provide guide dogs to veterans who have lost their sight in the course of their duties. Michael has also completed a college degree and is a regular speaker on behalf of US veterans. The currents state of research in Blindness is moving forward at a rapid pace. Retinal implants combined with Stem Cell technology and Gene Therapy, the future may well offer whole eye replacement, a dream for many in the world of blindness. Michael remains philosophical about this. “I have been blind for 11 and a half years now. I’m okay with being blind, Organ regeneration was once Star-Trek stuff but I know that these days they are moving ahea

NEW YORK CITY, USA, 18 MARCH 2016: Sandford Greenberg and Art Garfunkel seen at their Alma Mater Columbia University. Greenberg lost his sight in his first few months at Columbia as a young man. Garfunkel was his room-mate at the time and went to help Greenberg climb out of his desperation at finding himself blind. They made a significant train journey back to NY city and once they reached Grand Central became separated and then Greenberg was forced to make his way to Columbia University alone as a blind man for the first time. When Greenberg finally reached Columbia he felt a touch on his arm and it turned out that Garfunkel had been alongside him the entire time. Greenberg sites this moment as when it first occurred to him that he was going to be fine despite his blindness. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

POLOKWANE, SOUTH AFRICA, 27 APRIL 2016: Dawie Groenewalt, South Africa's alleged Rhino horn kingpin and the subject of a 6 year old court case involving multiple charges related to illegal Rhino handling, horn theft, money laundering amongst other charges. He is seen on his game farm in Polokwane where he breeds high-end game for sale and hunting purposes. Groenewalt has also been charged and arrested in the USA on animal trophy charges. Groenwalt denies any wrong doing. He is also one of the driving forces behind the court effort to legalize the rhino trade in South Africa. Interestingly, if horn was to be legalized, most of his charges would disapear and he would be in a prime position as a breeder to make significant money from rhino horn. He owns two large properties for breeding and hunting purposes and he hosts many international hunters on those properties. In a small circle of breeders, vets, lawyers and hunters, Dawie is connected to many people in this world. He states freely that South Africa's recent decent not to apply to CITES for the legalization of horn is a death knell for rhino in the wild in South Africa. He further alleges that Kruger National Park, the largest repository for Rhino in the world, vastly over-reports their rhino numbers. Interestingly again, Kruger is Groenwalt's largest source for Rhino, he has won repeated tenders for rhino from the park. He is also connected to John Hume, the worlds largest Rhino breeder and one of three partners in Groenwalt's legal efforts to legalize Rhino horn for export to Asia. He claims to receive multiple calls from both Chinese and Vietnamese buyers on a monthly basis, all asking for horn. He also tells of taking representatives from both nations to John Hume's place and to show them Hume's cache of horns from dehorning. This cache is allegedly worth in excess of 300 000 000 South African Rand, around 20 million dollars. He argues in favour of breeding and dehorning for export, stating that John Hume al

VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, JANUARY 25 2015: Emmanuel De Merode, head warden of Virunga National Park, is seen in the Southern sector headquarters of Rumangabo with two of his permanent bodyguards. De Merode has worked inside Virunga since 1992 and has been present for all the trials and tribulations of Virunga since then. He has been head warden since 2008. He has negotiated with two major Rebel groups to keep access to the mountain gorillas of the region, he has dealt with the deaths of more than 170 of his Rangers. He has been a conservation visionary in securing funding to continue the running of Virunga and pioneered the building of sustainable hydroelectric projects to win the hearts of local communities and stave off the threat of oil exploration. De Merode was shot four times last year by three unknown men who are either linked to the FDLR rebel group or to Soco oil, a British oil compnay De Merode has been campaigning against. He was back in the park a month after he was shot despite warnings about his health and his safety. De Merode continues to spearhead the global campaign to protect Virunga, beloved by his men and one of the most respected conservation figues in the world.

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, USA, 15 JULY 2015: Dr Carl June, head of the Cart19 cancer program at UPenn surveys the Philadelphia skyline from the construction platform for his new laboratory. The lab is being built with help from Novartis who have supported Dr June for a number of years. Dr June has pioneered new Gene therapy in the search for a cure for cancer, revolutionizing how we may come to conquer the disease. He and his team have developed a means by which to use the HIV virus as a targeting vector for cancer cells, allowing the patients own T-cells to go to war once they have been turned into super cells and re-injected into the patients body. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Claysun Benally with his horse in Cameron, Arizona. Claysun is a strong believer in traditional Navajo values and along with his father keeps several horses on their property in Flagstaff. The Navajo have a long relationship with the wild horse, a relationship characterized by gentleness and agreement rather than breaking the horses spirti to the will of man. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

VIVEKANANDA MISSION ASRAM, HALDIA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, JANUARY 14, 2016: A young boy with severely impaired vision seen in the hostel residence of the Vivekananda Mission Asram school for the blind. This is the highest rated school for blind children in India, the country with the highest number of blind people, arond 1% of their population, approximately 12 million people. Vivekanda Mission Asram provides care to some of the poorest of blind children, providing them with an education and tools for life survival once they leave the Asram after graduating. The children learn a normal school curiculum through braile and a team of dedicated teachers. Vocationa training is also available at the Asram in weaving, candle making amongst other skills that can add meaning to a blind life in India. Most of the blind in India end up as beggars, this school offers students a chance to be more than that. A number of their students have gone on to become senior teachers for sighted pupils, lawyers and business people. In these images the boys and girls are seen attending school lessons, learning Braille, music as well as scenes from their hostel residence and sports activities. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

KISUMU, KENYA, 21 JUNE 2015: Shelvine Achreng is sick with Leukemia and Sickle Cell disease. Her parents are impoverished farm labourers who cannot afford transport to the appropriate hospital, let alone the costs of treating Shelvine's condition. Victims of this kind of disease amongst Africa's poor are destined to die without outside intervention. Non-Communicable diseases like Cancer, Hypertension and Diabetes are on the rise in Africa, adding to the strain the more traditional diseases already place on populations. Poverty only serves to increase fatalities amongst the poorest of these. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)

JUBA, SOUTH SUDAN, FEBRUARY 2013: Sister Felicita Humwara, the head of history and religious studies at Juba Day Secondary School, Juba, South Sudan, February 3, 2013. Sister Humwara has taken a special interest in early marriage students and students who have fallen pregnant while at school. This is not uncommon in South Sudan. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

LEBANON, TENNESSEE, USA, 30 MAY 2014: Whitney Lackey is a 17-year-old athlete living in Lebanon, Tennessee who participates in the Special Olympics while managing Tuberous Sclerosis. Whitney experiences renal angiomyolipomas, angiofibromas and cognitive delays associated with her TSC diagnosis. Whitney is an only child and lives at home with her parents, Sharon and Brent Lackey. Whitney has had multiple tumors all over her body since she was a baby and also suffers from seizures. Novartis makes a drug called Afinitor which was developed as a cancer medication. It has the unexpected effect of shrinking tumors in people with Tuberous Sclerosis. This underlines the importance of ongoing research and development for big Pharma, something Novartis does more of than any other pharmaceutical company. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)

LEBANON, TENNESSEE, USA, 30 MAY 2014: Whitney Lackey is a 17-year-old athlete living in Lebanon, Tennessee who participates in the Special Olympics while managing Tuberous Sclerosis. Whitney experiences renal angiomyolipomas, angiofibromas and cognitive delays associated with her TSC diagnosis. Whitney is an only child and lives at home with her parents, Sharon and Brent Lackey. Whitney has had multiple tumors all over her body since she was a baby and also suffers from seizures. Novartis makes a drug called Afinitor which was developed as a cancer medication. It has the unexpected effect of shrinking tumors in people with Tuberous Sclerosis. This underlines the importance of ongoing research and development for big Pharma, something Novartis does more of than any other pharmaceutical company. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Novartis.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

VIVEKANANDA MISSION ASRAM, HALDIA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, JANUARY 14, 2016: Swami Biswanathanda, the religious leader of the Vivekananda Mission Asram school for the blind. He is seen at the temple complex located on the Mission grounds. This is one of the best schools for blind children in India, the country with the highest number of blind people, arond 1% of their population, approximately 12 million people. Vivekanda Mission Asram provides care to some of the poorest of blind children, providing them with an education and tools for life survival once they leave the Asram after graduating. The children learn a normal school curiculum through braile and a team of dedicated teachers. Vocationa training is also available at the Asram in weaving, candle making amongst other skills that can add meaning to a blind life in India. Most of the blind in India end up as beggars, this school offers students a chance to be more than that. A number of their students have gone on to become senior teachers for sighted pupils, lawyers and business people. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

MU CANG CHAI, YEN BAI, VIETNAM, 6 JUNE 2015: Dr Chang As Sinh, 37, updates his records in his office in the community hospital in the hills over Mu Cang Chai. Sinh has worked in this community for over 10 years and is the only doctor in the community. He speaks the local Hmong dialect and is instrumental in medical care delivery to this remote ethnic minority. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Novartis)

ANCHORAGE, ALASKA, 1 March 2016: When Dan Bigley was 25 he lost life as he knew when a bear mauled him, leaving his face ruined and his eyes blind after the incident. After relearning everything from how to match his socks to how to make a living, Dan earned a masters degree in social work, got married and became a father to two children. He currently works with youth in need in Anchorage, Alaska. Medical science is moving forward at a rapid pace when it comes to rebuilding aspects of the cell building blocks that make up our organs. There is speculation within the industry that one day whole eye replacement may become a possibility. Dan would be the perfect candidate for that, as would children and veterans who lose their sight in combat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD, 7 JANUARY 2015: The "Wild Dog" Ranger horse patrol group as it prepares to leave for a week of anti poaching patrol at Zakouma National Park, Chad. The horse patrols are the old guard of Zakouma's rangers and have seen a good deal of conflict in their time in the park. Zakouma lost nearly 75% of its elephants in the decade before 2011 due to raids by Janajaweed and Sudanese poachers, many of them from the Sudanese military. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a big supporter of the elephant of Zakouma and of its elephants. The herds here until recently used to be as large as 1000 animals all moving together, severe poaching over the last decade saw that number decimated and now only around 20% of the number remains. Since 2011 however there has been control over poaching and there has not been a single elephant poached in the last 2 years. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a strong supporter of the park and Zakouma is on the upsurge in terms of its elephant population once again. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DR CONGO, 26 NOVEMBER 2015: ICCN conservation rangers working as a bodyguard unit wait for a visit from the Minister of the Environment at Rumangabo Ranger Headquarters. Fighting in the region between FDLR rebels and Virunga's rangers continues to be a problem and bodyguard units are assigned to key wardens in the park. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

GULU, UGANDA: Margret Acino, 32, is one of hundreds of thousands of victims of the L.R.A; a rebel group that now relies heavily on ivory to fund their terror campaign. She was attacked by members of the Lord’s Resistance Army when she was 23 and 9 months pregnant. Her lips, ears and nose were cut off and her breasts were hacked off by the rebels. Margret and a small group of villagers had gone to the fields for crops when they found themselves surrounded. They were taken quickly to an area outside of Gulu where the men accused them of informing on the LRA to the Ugandan Army. Two men and a child were then immediately killed with the hoes they had been carrying for farming. The commander of the rebels accused them again, confronting Margaret and accusing her of being the wife of a soldier. Her husband was in fact a simple farmer. The LRA commander then killed another women in front of her. He said this must be the truth or how could she be so confident in talking with them. He then said he would teach her not to inform ever again. He ordered his men, mostly young teenagers, to produce a razor blade. They hesitated and the commander then threatened his own men, one of them then produced a razor blade and they were ordered to cut off Margret’s lips, ears and nose, a practice that was an LRA trademark at the time. When the men were finished, Margret was released and told to run. She passed out from loss of blood shortly thereafter and when she revived she found a man