ISHANGO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 6 MAY 2015: European Union commissioned instructors teach Virunga National Park rangers skills for concealment, bush craft, weapons and survival in their fight against paramilitary groups and poachers in the Park. Groups like the Hutu led FDLR and Ugandan ADF continue to make conservation problematic and dangerous inside Virunga, well known as one of the worlds most dangerous places to practice conservation. This group is a smaller subset of Rangers who will receive specialized training for a quick reaction force. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

Rhino Wars This photo essay attempts to look at the environmental crisis caused by Asia’s appetite for Rhino horn. The horn is part of an ancient Asian medical system and today is seen as a curative for everything from Cancer to Kidney stones. Essentially keratin, a mild alkaline substance identical to fingernails, the horn is ground down in grinding bowls and mixed with water. This is then ingested by the sick and the wealthy of Vietnam and China, the imbiber hoping for miracle cures, when in fact science shows us it has a placebo effect at best. The use of horn dates back over 2000 years but the recent economic rise of countries like China and Vietnam and the subsequent wealth of the new upper class has had disastrous effects on the world’s remaining rhino population. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold and the poaching crisis is a perfect storm of that value playing out in the most corrupt wildlife systems with some of the poorest poachers as well as rhino ranchers who see millions of dollars in pushing to legalize the trade. South Africa is the main repository of the world’s remaining rhino, figure less than 20,000 animals. South Africa is on track to lose over 1600 animals this year, a figure that has risen every year since 2006 when less than 20 animals were killed for their horns. This essay examines the crisis along the Mozambique/South African border where daily incursions by armed poachers has resulted in a war which plays out inside Kruger National Park, the largest reserve for rhino in the world. We see the poachers with silenced weapons, the middle men arrested in sting operations by Mozambican authorities and the few rhino who dare to venture into Mozambique, protected by a tiny NGO who is the only effective organization in country. The average life expectancy for a Kruger rhino in Mozambique is 24 hours, a country where they were recently declared extinct. The essay goes on to show widows who have lost husbands and sons in this fight, range

MOAMBA, MOZAMBIQUE, 19 APRIL 2016: Two rhino poachers, one 19, the other 28 years old, apprehended by an anti-poaching team in Mozambique close to Kruger National Park border. They are seen waiting to be processed in the local jail. After a three day chase they were caught in a roadblock and the rifle seized shortly thereafter. This was due to a co-ordinated effort between Kruger National Park in South Africa where the poachers intended to shoot rhino for their horn; and Sabi Game Park, a conservancy on the Mozabique side. The poachers were tracked and identified by their unique shoe pattern. They tried to say they had been on their way to buy cattle but had no money on their persons and the alleged cattle owner said he did not know anything about selling his cattle. A Czech CZ .458 hunting rifle was seized, complete with a professionally built silencer. Both men admitted their guilt and will be charged under new Mozambican law which states that possesion on the weapon and bullets indicates intent to poach rhino, this carries a maximum sentence of 12 years and/or $80,000.00. Their Toyota Hilux vehicle was also confiscated. The younger of the two poachers, 19, later led police to the homes of suspected weapons and transport suppliers, higher ups in the rhino poaching syndicates known as level 2's and 3's. Those men had fled by the time the police arrived but significant information was discovered in the form of identity documents, both real and forged, as well as banking account information. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic Magazine.)

LIMPOPO, SOUTH AFRICA, 2 APRIL 2016: “Shoelaces on steroids.” That's how Saving the Survivors PR Spokesperson Suzanne Boswell Rudham described Tuesday's groundbreaking procedure using human abdominal surgery technology to stretch the wounded edges the gaping wound created by horn poachers who removed most of the face of the world's most famous rhino, “Hope.” The Saving the Survivors team member joined a team of top wildlife vets on a Limpopo plot of land, where they stitched the elastymers, imported from Canada, on to Hope's battered face. They are hoping that it will to pull the edges of the wound together and finally heal the massive wound, which happened when poachers hacked off almost all of her face last May. But the world-famous animal with the indomitable spirit has clung to life - and has become an ambassador for the conservation of her ever-threatened species, Johan Marais, a wildlife vet and founder of Saving the Survivors, told a small group of onlookers gathered around him and his team. In a procedure that lasted just over an hour, they inserted pulley systems in Hope’s skin to "crank the laces" to close the massive cavity on her face. In Hope's latest procedure - she has already had five major surgeries and other smaller ones - they used an abdominal re-approximation anchor system, imported from Canada by local distributors Surgitech. "Basically it's developed for people who've had stomach surgery where they can't close the wound," Rudham explained. "Whereas before they used it to stitch it and staple it, now this system... actually pulls in the tissue without destroying any cells." In the past year, 60% of Hope's face has healed, but she's not out of the woods yet, explains Marais. Hope’s gaping wound is constantly attacked by flies and maggots. "We're hoping to make that cavity a lot smaller and then we'll put a wound matrix over that with collagen for the cells to start growing together," adds Rudham. After the procedure, the bandaged rhi

SABIE GAME PARK, MOZAMBIQUE, 9 APRIL 2016: A combined force of Sabie Game Park Rangers, Garda Frontier soldiers and Fauna Bravia soldiers arrest and detain Moses Chauque, a level 2 rhino poacher who arranges weapons and transport for rhino poachers. There are multiple arrest warrants for Chauque, both in Mozambique and South Africa. This arrest was put together with intelligence gathered by IAPF, the International Anti-Poaching Foundation, the only effective Anti-poaching group on the ground in Mozambique. Moses Chauque was identified in statements from two seperate groups of poachers who were arrested in Mozambique with CZ hunting rifles and rhino horn. Both groups made sworn statements the Chauque contracted them for rhino poaching in nearby Kruger National Park. There are also further warrants in South Africa for his alleged involvement in two murder cases. When Chauque was delivered into Police custody in Mouamba, Mozambique, the police apparently cheered that he had finally been caught. The case against him in Mozambique will now revolve around weapons charges and the statements against him made by the two groups of arrested rhino poachers. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

EZULU GAME FARM, GRAHAMSTOWN, SOUTH AFRICA, 15 MAY 2016: Four pairs of Cow and calf rhinos are captured and moved into transport for relocation to a more secure facility. This is the last of 27 Rhino that are being moved away from game farms in the Port Elizabeth/Grahamstown region where it is feared that security is inadequate to protect these rhino from poachers. 6 rhino have already been killed in the last 3 months and the professional manner in which they were poached has prompted owners to say that it is better for these rhino to leave their farms and go to a more secure facility. The rhinos will travel for 20 hours to their new location and will be sedated every three hours by a vet who will accompany them at all times. They will also be guarded by full time security for their journey and full time at their final location. It is a truism of rhino ownership these days that owners can often not afford the expense of full time security for these animals, such is the pressure from poachers and the value of their horn in Asia. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

BUFFALO DREAM RANCH, KLERKSDORP, SOUTH AFRICA, 24 MAY 2016: A two-man security team deploys by helicopter at sunset for anti-poaching duties on the worlds largest Rhino breeding ranch. The teams are at work 24 hours a day and conduct security operations from rotating positions, observation points and on mobile patrols on foot, in vehicles and by helicopter. John Hume has close to 1400 Rhino to protect on his property and they are constantly monitored by his vet Dr Michelle Otto and by Hume’s Security teams. Hume’s running costs are close to 5 million Rand a month, around $330, 000.00 per month. $200,000.00 of that is spent on security. Hume is a long time proponent of legalizing the Rhino horn trade by using humane dehorning and is one of the biggest influences in trying to get CITES to change their anti-trade stance. Hume is reputed to have more than 5 tons of rhino horn in secure locations. This would be worth around $40, 000, 000.00 on the Asian market at current prices. There are many supporters of the pro-trade agreement, with more than 1300 rhino likely to be poached per annum in this current crisis. Critics of trade state that legalizing horn trade would create loopholes that would exacerbate the killing of rhino. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, KENYA: A four man anti-poaching team permanently guards Northern White Rhino on Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, 13 July 2011. The Ol Pejeta Conservancy is an important “not-for-profit” wildlife conservancy in the Laikipia District of Kenya and the largest sanctuary for black rhinos in East Africa. It is also the home of 4 of the world's remaining 8 Northern White Rhino, the worlds most endangered animal. There has been an increase in poaching incidents on Ol Pejeta recently, in line with a massive worldwide increase in rhino poaching linked to the rise in the Asian middle class. Anti-poaching teams provide close protection to the rhino, with 24 hour observation over all rhino on Ol Pejeta and 24 hour armed guard protection over the 4 Northern White Rhino who are kept in their own Boma area. The team have developed extraordinary relationships with these Rhino, leaning on them, scratching them and displaying tremendous affection towards these most endangered of animals. Each of the men in these teams feels a genuine vocation towards the protection of these animals, something the rhino seem to sense, and this emerges on a daily basis as the men walk with the rhino through their day.

SUNDARABANS, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 8 JANUARY 2016: Mahammad Ali Molla, 60, has been blind for the last 14 years. He goes for tea every day and his grandson accompanies him on the 2 kilometer walk to the local market. He also assists him as he drinks and eats when he is not at school. Mahammad developed a problem with his eyes when tree sap entered in them while working as an agricultural labourer. He could not access eye treatment and as his eyes were neglected he developed corneal ulcers. He sought medical help from local quacks who took his money but destroyed his one eye and damaged the other with their ill-advised treatment techniques. He received further surgery from Kolkata Medical college but they could not save his remaining vision. He spent 30 000 rupees on that trip to Kolkata and it is likely most of that money went to living away from his home while undergoing treatment as well as paying unscrupulous middle men. Mahammad is supported by his wife Samiran Molla, 55, who has had to shoulder the financial burden of raising their 5 children. They survive today with meagre fishing income and by her eating with one son and Mahammad eating with the other. It is likely Mahammad's blindness could have been prevented by access to qualified eye care but his remote location and lack of local facilities as well as his state of poverty prevented access to correct treatment. This story is not uncommon in the more remote parts of India where remote communities are encumbered by a lack of quality eye care at hand and poverty makes travel and care inaccesable. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

OMARURU, NAMIBIA, 5 November 2015: Gerd Gamanab, 67, is a completely sightless man hoping for a miracle at a blindness camp in Omaruru District hospital in Namibia. He lost his sight to 50 years of farm labour in the Namibian sun and dust, which destroyed both of his corneas. This kind of blindness is the result of living in remote locations with prolonged exposure to fierce elements and no eye care anywhere nearby. A lack of education as to what was happening to his eyes also allowed this to occur. These camps are held all over Namibia and cater to sections of the population that do not receive regular eye care, mostly as a result of poverty. The applicant are screened and if the diagnosis is a mature cataract, they are selected as candidates for a simple operation which in fifteen minutes lends signicant sight to their world. The cataract is removed by a surgical vacuum and a new lens in inserted. Bandages are removed the next day and in most cases a real improvement in vision is the result. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 17 SEPTEMBER 2014: Bharat Mallik, 7, is a boy who suffers from Cataract and Glaucoma blindness and comes from a severely impoverished Bengali family in India. He is seen at Vivekananda Mission Hospital, an eye hospital which specializes in treating the poor for little or no money. Bharat’s father is a drunk and his labourer mother struggles to make ends meet. As a result he has not been treated for his eye issues. A teacher network at school notified a local social worker and as a result of his efforts Bharat is scheduled for surgery at Vivekananda Ashram hospital a few hours away. Most of these villagers are so poor that transport to a hospital is not possible. As a result many children go permanently blind when, like Bharat, a simple operation could restore their sight. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

WEST BENGAL, INDIA 28 OCTOBER 2013: Anita and Sonia Singh explore the beginning of sight as they walk through bullrushes close to their village after undergoing eye surgery. Both Anita, 5, and her older sister Sonia, 12, are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness and they will need to excercise their new eyes for at least six months before their sight approximates normal. The surgery to cure cataract blindness is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.

WEST BENGAL, INDIA 21 OCTOBER 2013: Blind girls Sonia, 12, and Anita Singh, 5, accompany their parents during a rainstorm while they work in the fields of their rural Indian village. Both sisters are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness. They must accompany their parents everywhere as they cannot be left alone without risk. The surgery to cure this is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.

CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2013: Rodrigue Katembo, Central Section Warden, Virunga National Park, leads a combined team of ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army on an patrol into an area known to have a FDLR rebel presence, Chondo, Virunga, DRC. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. Since they fled into the DRC and the park after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 190 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers are winning this battle but at a heavy price. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage)

NZARA, SOUTH SUDAN, 17 NOVEMBER 2014: Michael Oryem, 29, is a former Lord's Resistance Army fighter who was involved in the poaching of Ivory in Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a former base of operations for the LRA and a major source of financing for the notorious group. Oryem was abducted by the group when he was 9 and lived with them for over 17 years in the wild. He was made a commander in the group at the age of 12. The LRA is infamous for the killing and abduction of thousands of civilians across multiple countries. He defected and is now a member of the Ugandan Army, UPDF, African Union force hunting the LRA. he is seen with 2 of six pieces of ivory which he hid and then led the Ugandan forces to inside the border region of the Central African Republic. He claims that the LRA killed many elephants in Garamba and he was ordered by Joseph Kony, the groups notorious leader, to bring the ivory to him in Darfur, South Sudan. Ivory is now a real means of financing for the LRA, it is used for both food and weapons supplies and is traded to the Sudanese Army who transports it north to Khartoum. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

GULU, UGANDA, 21 NOVEMBER 2014: Margret Acino, 32, was attacked by members of the Lord’s Resistance Army when she was 23 and 9 months pregnant. Her lips, ears and nose were cut off and her breasts were hacked by a group of LRA men. Margret and a small group of villagers had gone to the fields for crops when they found themselves surrounded by the infamous rebels. They were taken quickly to an area outside of Gulu where the men accused them of informing on the LRA to the Ugandan Army. Two men and a child were then immediately killed with the hoes they had been carrying for farming. The commander of the rebels accused them again, confronting Margaret and accusing her of being the wife of a soldier. Her husband was in fact a simple farmer. The LRA commander then killed another women in front of her. He said this must be the truth or how could she be so confident in talking with them. He then said he would teach her not to inform ever again. He ordered his men, mostly young teenagers, to produce a razor blade. They hesitated and the commander then threatened his own men, one of them produced a razor blade and they were ordered to cut off Margret’s lips, ears and nose, a practice that was becoming an LRA trademark at the time. When the men were finished, Margret was released and told to run. She passed out from loss of blood shortly thereafter and when she revived she found a man with a bicycle who took her to an IDP. She was in surgery for 2 days, her baby was born via an emergency caesarian and Margret then lapsed into a coma for 5 days. She has had 7 surgeries since to try to repair her ravaged face. The LRA commander who ordered this brutality subsequently defected and was given amnesty. Margaret saw him at a World Vision camp and became hysterical, telling people he was the one behind her tragedy. He was moved from the camp but not prosecuted. Margret has subsequently forgiven him, saying that it is easier to live with things this way. Her husband was less suppo

RUMANGABO, NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 28 NOVEMBER 2015: The funeral of ICCN Ranger Theodore Mbusa Matofali, 27, after a tragic car accident which left him dead from head injuries. Over 150 ICCN rangers have died in the course of their duties in Virunga National Park, most of those deaths have resulted from conflict. The Rangers have a dangerous job, often dealing with rebel movements, paramilitary Mai-Mai groups as well as the Congolese army all in the name of conservation in this contentious region of the DRC. (photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

LULIMBI, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, FEBRUARY 2012: Congolese Conservation Rangers deploy young bloodhounds for the first time in Virunga to investigate the corpse of a recently killed male elephant in Lulimbi, Eastern DRC, February 29, 2012. The elephant is suspected to have been killed by FDLR, a Rwandan Hutu led rebel group that has lived inside Virunga since 1995 when it fled Tutsi reprisals for the Rwandan Genocide. FDLR has consistently killed elephants in Virunga in order finance its campaign of violence with the proceeds from Ivory sales. FDLR often work in collaboration with the Congolese army, another element inside Virunga that makes conservation very difficult. The young dogs reacted with horror at the elephant corpse, their noses are estimated to be 3 million times more sensitive than a humans.

MBOKI, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, 25 NOVEMBER 2014: Soldiers on patrol from the African Union Ugandan Armed forces, UPDF, base at Mboki, Central African Republic. The Ugandan contingent based here are focused on the aprehension of the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA, the notorious rebel group led by Joseph Kony which has terrorized citizens of Uganda, C.A.R, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo for the last 4 decades. Soldiers are seen crossing a river, a technique they have perfected with ropes despite the fact that many of the men cannot swim. Captain (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

LOME', TOGO, 29 JANUARY 2014: Containers with 4 tons of illegal ivory confiscated in January 2014 by the Togolese customs office from its new deep water port, Lome,' Togo. This ivory has been directly linked through DNA evidence to the elephant massacre that occured in Dzanga Bai, Central African Republic in 2013. That massacre was perpetrated by Seleka rebels who climbed the observation towers at the famous forest elephant gathering place in Dzanga Bai and gunned down the elephants with automatic weapons. The Seleka rebels would have used the proceeds from this ivory sale for some of the violence which has plagued C.A.R over much of 2013 and 2014. Togo has been viewed as a new opportunity by ivory smugglers with its new deep water port. Customs officers with new Container scanning technology have made the efforts of these smugglers more difficult. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD: Rangers from a horse patrol group exhibit their riding skills as they return to base at Zakouma National Park, Chad. The horse patrols are the old guard of Zakouma's rangers and have seen a good deal of conflict in their time in the park. Zakouma lost nearly 75% of its elephants in the decade before 2011 due to raids by Janajaweed and Sudanese poachers, many of them from the Sudanese military. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a big supporter of the elephant of Zakouma and of its elephants. The herds here until recently used to be as large as 1000 animals all moving together, severe poaching over the last decade saw that number decimated and now only around 20% of the number remains. Since 2011 however there has been control over poaching and there has not been a single elephant poached in the last 2 years. The credit for that lies with these rangers and the new management of the park.

VICHUMBI, LAKE EDWARD, DR CONGO, 27 JULY 2013: Mai Mai thugs who tried to rob 5 fisherman had the tables turned on them when the fisherman knocked their single AK47 into the water and subdued them, Vuchimbi, Lake Edward, DR Congo, 27 July 2013. The thieves were handed over to a combined ICCN (Congolese Conservation force) and FARDC (Congolese Army force) troop and searched and arrested. The villagers depend on the lake for water, washing, the staple food of fishing, the transport of people and goods. Plans by Socco oil company to drill for oil in Lake Edward currently imperil all of those things. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

GARAMBA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRACTIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 12 NOVEMBER 2014: ICCN Ranger officer Mambo inside the ivory storage locker at Garamba National Park in the DR Congo. This ivory is the prize that notorious rebel group the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA, comes looking for in Garamba. Killing elephants for their ivory is an order direct from the LRA's sociopathic leader Joseph Kony, a man wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against Humanity. Rangers in Garamba find themselves up against a heavily armed LRA in their battle to save Garamba's elephant. As pressure has increased on Kony, the LRA has turned to Ivory as one means of sustaining themselves in their decades long bush war against the civilians of Uganda, Congo and the South Sudan/CAR region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic magazine.)

BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)

GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 22 JANUARY 2015: Benadete Kahindo, 32, seen with her eldest daughter Gift and 3 of her seven children. Benadete's husband was ICCN ranger Hassan Sebuyori, 34. In 2012 Hassan was targeted, killed and beheaded by FDLR, a notorious Hutu led rebel group operating inside Virunga National Park since the time of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. Benadete was forced to flee from her home after continued FDLR threats and a year later her eldest daughter Gift was raped at age 14 by the M23 rebels, a group who claimed to be opposed to FDLR. Gift gave birth to a child after the rape. Benadete's husband Hassan had been effective in stopping FDLR's bushmeat trade inside Virunga. They were angry with him for this and ambushed the ICCN vehicle in which he was travelling. FDLR dragged a wounded Hassan away with them and his headless body was discovered not far from the ambush location. His head was not recovered and his body was left as a warning to the other rangers. Benadete and her children survive on funds from the Virunga Widows fund, something dependant on donations and not guaranteed for the future. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

TRANSKEI COAST, SOUTH AFRICA-NOVEMBER 2003: Xhosa boys undergoing the circumcision ceremony walk back to their huts at the end of the day. Every Xhosa male must undergo this ceremony which begins with a unanethatised circumcision and then explores a month long oral history of the Xhosa people. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

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KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Maria, a drug addict and sex worker, entertains a client in a room she rents in a house from an old lady, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. Maria uses drugs on a daily basis and sees many men every week but remains HIV negative. She claims she need the money to support herself, her habit and her 9 year old daughter. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Maria, a drug addict and sex worker, entertains a client in a room she rents in a house from an old lady, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. Maria uses drugs on a daily basis and sees many men every week but remains HIV negative. She claims she need the money to support herself, her habit and her 9 year old daughter. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

RIFIJI, SELOUS, TANZANIA, 4 MARCH 2013: Yusuf Shabani Difika, 41, lost both his arms to a lion attack on a fishing trip on the border of Selous National Park, Tanzania. The lion attacked Yusuf and his arms were shredded beyond recovery as he attempted to fend off the animal. He says the lion bit him multiple times on his arms, exposing his bones and ripping off the flesh. Yusuf was rescued by village friends who drove the lion off with sticks and machettes. Yusuf was rushed to a local clinic and then transported to a hospital where doctors had no choice but to amputate what was left of his arms. Yusuf has two children, aged 5 and 3, he has lost the ability to work and is entirely reliant on his father, his uncle and his cousins as well as the kindness of his village for his survival. He says the hardest thing is that he cannot clean himself or go to the bathroom without assistance. His uncle bathes him on a regular basis and his father and cousins help him to dress, eat and drink. Lion attacks on the rural people who farm close to Selous National Park are not uncommon. There is a degree of hypocrisy to the West's expectation that these people should live with lions as if there is no danger. They do not benefit from the wildlife in Selous and they live in danger as there are no fences to the Park and the range of the lions often extends outside of the park. They are especially in vulnerable during the harvest period. Wild Bush pigs are attracted by young maize and rice crops and so people sleep in their fields in order to protect their crops. Rural people are especially exposed to lion attacks at this time. The lions are attracted to the bushpig presence, the pigs are hard to catch and the human beings are close at hand, often completely vulnerable and easy to subdue.

NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: Professional hunters fool around with a dead captive bred lioness after a bow hunt on a game farm close to the South Africa/Botswana border region, October 19, 2012. Two systems for the hunts exist in two different provinces of South Africa. One practice sees the lion released for a minimal 96 hours into a 3000-hectare area before the hunt can begin. The other practice sees the lion released for 3 months into a minimum 3000-hectare area before it can be hunted. The lioness in these images was released 96 hours ahead of the hunt into the area. Recent global research points to the fact that hunting and breeding programs are necessary components for the survival of lions into the future. These practices go some way towards lessening pressure on wild lion populations as well as preserving a strong lion DNA base and a future repository for lions for areas where they have been decimated. The hunting industry is also a strong employer in Africa, with over 1.4 million square kilometers given over to hunting concessions. This is a landmass more than 20% higher than that given over to Wildlife Conservation areas. More than 18000 hunters come to Africa every year and the money high-end dangerous game hunting brings to the continent goes some way to preserving the land mass set aside for hunting.

NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: A captive bred lion is skinned after a hunt close to the South Africa/Botswana border, October 19, 2012. Two systems for the hunts exist in two different provinces of South Africa. One practice sees the lion released for a minimal 96 hours into a 3000-hectare area before the hunt can begin. The other practice sees the lion released for 3 months into a minimum 3000-hectare area before it can be hunted. The lioness in these images was released 96 hours ahead of the hunt into the area. Recent global research points to the fact that hunting and breeding programs are necessary components for the survival of lions into the future. These practices go some way towards lessening pressure on wild lion populations as well as preserving a strong lion DNA base and a future repository for lions for areas where they have been decimated. The hunting industry is also a strong employer in Africa, with over 1.4 million square kilometers given over to hunting concessions. This is a landmass more than 20% higher than that given over to Wildlife Conservation areas. More than 18000 hunters come to Africa every year and the money high-end dangerous game hunting brings to the continent goes some way to preserving the land mass set aside for hunting.

NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: Over 40 carcasses from lion hunts hang up to dry in a vehicle yard on a farm in the North West Province, South Africa, October 19, 2012. These bones come from lions killed in legal hunts. The dealer requires a local permit for Nature Conservation South Africa as well as a Cites export permit for this trade. There is a large Asian market for these bones, which are crushed and used in Asian medicines and also in Lion Wine. Lion bone has become more popular in Asian culture as a result of the increasing rarity of the Tiger. Tiger parts have long been a part of Asian traditional medicine, but with less than 3000 tigers left in the wild, lion bone is becoming increasingly popular. Conservationists argue that this increasing demand for lion bone will severely impact wild lion populations. Hunters and breeders argue that they can easily meet the demand and that a legal trade means wild lion populations as well as tiger populations will be saved as captive breeding and hunting of those lions can meet the demand. Prices for a lion skeleton vary, from $1200 to $10, 000. South Africa is the lion hunting and breeding capital of the world, with an estimated 500 plus lions hunted every year and the largest breeding programs in the world.

MPIMBWE, WESTERN TANZANIA, OCTOBER 2012: Lion Dancers from the Sakuma tribe perform the story of their lion killing outside a village in rural Mpimbwe, Western Tanzania, October 27, 2012. Lion dancers are men who have killed a lion in defense of their cattle or their village. They are a deeply superstitious people who believe that once they have killed a lion they have to become a lion dancer for 3 to 5 years to avoid going mad. They spend a year or longer preparing with the local witchdoctor and then go from village to village seeing their relatives and dancing while collecting tribute for their bravery. In a time when lion are very scarce in the region, this practice is actively discouraged by conservation organizations and it is slowly dying out. It is illegal in Tanzania. When the dancers appear in the villages, they are often praised and given money, goats and even sometimes a small cow. It is therefore something that some young men aspire to, even going as far as to venture into the local Katavi National Park in pursuit of a lion.

AMBOSELLI ECOSYSTEM, KENYA, 25 FEBRUARY 2013: Images of "Lion Guardians" using telemetry to locate lions in the ecosystem outside of Amboselli National Park, Kenya, 25 February 2013. Lion guardians is a conservation program which recruits leading Maasai men, many of whom are former lion killers, into a system which monitors lions, confers a sense of ownership and pride in them and forms a Maasai vanguard which seeks to prevent other Maasai from hunting lions in retribution for cattle killing. Retaliatory and traditional spearing by Maasai warriors is the greatest threat to the survival of lions in Maasailand. the Lion Guardians program is unique in employing the traditional enemy of lions to conserve rather than kill them. The Guardians monitor spoor, use telemetry devices to track collared lions, and collect dna samples for analysis. They have also named all the lions in their area and recently produced identity cards which further reinforce notions of lion identity within Maasai communities.

OSAKA, JAPAN, 19 OCTOBER 2014: Sensei Fumon Tanaka, 73, Samurai master and descendent of a long line of Samurai warriors in Japan. He is seen at a temple complex in Osaka, Japan. Sensei Tanaka is somewhat controversial amongst the pursuants of the Samurai arts in that he embraces the media and has appeared in films, documentaries and commercials all showcasing his Samurai martial arts skills. This is controversial in Samurai culture as many pursuants believe in secrecy and humbleness and not in ostentatious display.

SHIMIZU KU, SHIZUOKA CITY, TOKYO, 16 OCTOBER 2014: Advanced students practise sword skills in the dojo of Master Sensei Yoshimitsu (Kagehiro) Katsuse, a master of all 18 of the Samurai arts. This dojo dates back to the 16th century and is one of very few pure Samurai dojos that survive today.

KONO, SIERRA LEONE-OCTOBER 2003: A 12 year old former "bush-wife" sex-slave of the rebel group the R.U.F. This girl was taken from her village at 10 years old and forced into sexual servitude by the rebels. When she attempted to escape they used battery acid to burn off her breast as an example to the other slaves. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Claysun Benally with his horse in Cameron, Arizona. Claysun is a strong believer in traditional Navajo values and along with his father keeps several horses on their property in Flagstaff. The Navajo have a long relationship with the wild horse, a relationship characterized by gentleness and agreement rather than breaking the horses spirti to the will of man. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

WINDOW ROCK, ARIZONA, 11 APRIL 2014: Senior police officer in the Navajo police Dana Dean Tome arrests a suspect on the streets of WindowRock, Arizona. This man was later found to be innocent. No alcohol is allowed on the reservation and it is one of the many obstacles faced by the understaffed, underfinanced Navajo Police. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro.)

PINON, NAVAJO NATION, ARIZONA, 5 APRIL 2014: Children play on a horse training farm close to the economically depressed area of Pinon, Arizona. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Rpeortage for Le Figaro.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Jones Benally, a famous medicine man, dances the Navajo Hoop dance in a small canyon in the badlands of Cameron, Arizona. The hoop dance is traditionally performed at the end of a grueling nine day ceremony and is a form of storytelling dance representing various animals, symbols and storytelling elements, all representing the never ending circle of life for the Navajo. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

TETE, MOZAMBIQUE, NOVEMBER 2013: Victor Pirez, 28, performs demining operations in the Chinzunga hills close to Cabora Bassa, Mozambique, 18 November 2013. Victor has been a demined for 5 years and says that his grandfather was killed by a landmine in this same region while walking to his farm. Victor's team cleared 15 landmines on this day and detonated them as usual before they left for the day. Victor is also the paramedic for his team and carries a major trauma kit with him. Victor makes $260 a month doing this job, considered a good salary in Mozambique. The HALO deminers in this area are dealing with landmines laid in the 1970's by the Portugese military who were attempting to defend the vital Cabora Bassa Hydro-electric dam, a strategic target for the Frelimo rebels at the time. Today, over 40 years later, these mines still maim and kill the local populace and prevent them utilizing vital agricultural land. This scene was photographed at demining operations close to the HALO Demining camp in the mountains of Chinzunga. Mozambique was one of the most heavily landmined countries in the war, both from its 11 year long War of Libertation as well as its conflicts with both South Africa and Rhodesia for sheltering both the ANC and Mugabe's Zanla freedom fighters. Halo has cleared over 22,700 anti personnel mines and reclaimed of 500, 000 square meters of land for the local populace. HALO runs both mechinical and manual operations. Mozambique is pushing hard to meet its donor obligations to be land-mine free by the end of 2014, under the mandate of the Ottawa convention on the land mine.

BARRIO CHIUIJO, WEST OF CHIMOIO, MOZAMBIQUE/ZIMBABWE BORDER, 19 NOVEMBER 2013: Bonafacio Mazin, 57, works his vegetable field with perfect balance despite losing one of his legs in 1987 to a landmine laid by Rhodesian forces in the seventies, Mozambique/Zimbabwe Border, West Chimoio, 19 November 2013. Bonafacio was walking home from farm work in Zimbabwe when the incident occured. Mozambique had very few jobs at the time and many people were killed in their way in and out of Zimbabwe by these landmines. "As a man, this is very bad, I cannot find a job, I work hard on the farm but I cannot do enough work. This landmine has reduced me to a beggar." This region is one of the most densely landmined in the world, effectively cutting off 50% of all arable land for these villages. The landmines were laid by the Rhodesean Military to protect against ZANLA freedom fighters in Rhodesia's war of liberation. They have been in place since the early 1970's and Norweigan Peoples Agency have been demining the area for some time. They hope to finish by the end of 2014 but that may be optimistic given the recent discovery of new minefields and resurgent violence from opposition party RENAMO. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for the ICRC.)

MOTOLLA CITY, MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE, 25 NOVEMBER 2013: Double amputee Jose Sabonete,54, a former FRELIMO soldier, is seen bathing at his impoverished home in Motolla City, Maputo, Mozambique, 25 November 2013. Jose lost his legs to a fragmentation landmine while serving as a soldier in the war. He and his 5 children exist today on a $100 government pension but he receives no other help for his condition. He is seen bathing in the toilet area of his home. The amputees in this image are all a result of landmine blasts. These veterans receive a $50 pension every month from government but rely on the kindness of their extended families to survive. Most have only brokendown prosthetics in dire need of maintenance as well as crutches that are on their last legs. Most of these men were injured by landmines in their fight against RENAMO, who were eventually defeated by FRELIMO who today makes up the leading party in the Mozambique government.

MOTOLLA CITY, MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE, 24 NOVEMBER 2013: Jose Magleso Nalabo, 48, was blinded while soldiering for FRELIMO during Mozambique's brutal civile war, he is seen outside his squatter housing in abandoned accomodation in Motolla City, Maputo, Mozambique, 24 November 2013. Jose was blinded when the soldier in front of him trod on a fragmentation landmine, killing himself and blinding Jose. 25 families live in these accomodations, the majority are former FRELIMO fighters from the Mozambique civil war. Most of those are amputees as a result of landmine blasts. These veterans receive a $50 pension every month from government but rely on the kindness of their extended families to survive. Most have only brokendown prosthetics in dire need of maintenance as well as crutches that are on their last legs. Most of these men were injured by landmines in their fight against RENAMO, who were eventually defeated by FRELIMO who today makes up the leading party in the Mozambique government.

AKHAND JYOTI EYE HOSPITAL, PATNA, BIHAR, INDIA, 10 SEPTEMBER 2014: Eye surgery patients recover in a mass ward at Akhand Jyoti Eye Hospital, the third largest eye hospital in India. This hospital performed over 65 000 eye surgeries last year, often averaging over 400 surgeries a day. They cater to the poorest of the poor in the poorest state in India. Over 2 thirds of their surgeries are free for the poor.

WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 15 SEPTEMBER 2014: A social worker looks after a young impoverished child who has just had surgery to correct congenital cataracts. This social worker has moved the boy into his own home for this delicate recovery process as the boy's father is a drunk and his labourer mother struggles to make ends meet. As a result he has not been treated for his cataracts. A teacher network at school notified this social worker and as a result of his efforts the child has succesful surgery at an Ashram hospital a few hours away. Most of these villagers are so poor that transport to a hospital is not possible, let alone surgery.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted in the desert on a training excercise close to a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic)

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement for Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and natural resource ownership, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 30 odd Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. In retaliation the Niger army attacked the school in July 2008 by attack helicopter and killed 17 MNJ rebels. The children at the school have since been moved to a safer location near Arlit Niger. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

ZAGADO, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of MNJ breakaway faction leader and Tuareg Rissa ag Boula, a former Niger Army commander and Minister of Tourism photographed in Zagado, Nothern Niger, 7 April 2009. Boula is now on the run himself from the French as well as Niger forces. He has gone back to his own people and joined the Tuareg rebellion although it is under some scepticism from other MNJ leaders. He has a reputation as a fierce fighter and is seen with his sniper rifle. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

SANDTON, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 8 DECEMBER 2013: People pay tribute to the life of Nelson Mandela at Mandela Square in Sandton City shopping center, Johannesburg, 8 December, 2013. There has been a massive response the death of Nelson Mandela across South Africa, as people remember an icon of the country. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

QUNU, EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA, 14 DECEMBER 2013: A man waits for the Nelson Mandela funeral procession to pass, Qunu, South Africa, 14 December 2014. An icon of democracy, Mandela was buried at his family home in Qunu after passing away on the 5th December 2013. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA, 10 DECEMBER 2013: Mandela supporters wait for public transport in the rain on their way to FNB stadium for a day of comemoration for Nelson Mandela, the iconic Freedom Fighter of the ANC, Soweto, South Africa, 10 December 2013. Mandela died on the 5th of December 2013. (Photo by Brent Stirton/© 2013 Cable News Network. A Time Warner Company. All Rights Reserved.)

HILLBROW, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 7 DECEMBER 2013: African Christians say passionate prayers on a hilltop overlooking Johannesburg, 7 December 2013. There are prayers all over the country at this time as people mourn the loss of Nelson Mandela, an icon of freedom and democracy who passed away on the 5 of December 2013 after a long struggle with illness. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Mahouts clean an elephant in a private home enclosure, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant belongs to Sundar Menon, a fuel supply magnate who runs Sungroup international. His is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant walks past two nervous women on its way to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 12, plays by herself on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few proper burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. Kumkum will first have her hands repaired to offer some use and then her face and body will be attended to. It will require at least a year of surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something she would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.

VARANASI, INDIA, 8 SEPTEMBER 2014: Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh operates on burn victim Ragini Kumari, 10, who was badly burnt by a Kerosene fire when she was 2 years old, she is one of over 6 million people burnt in India every year. Ragini has suffered constrictions of her neck and shoulders and lived in a permanently cramped and restricted postion ever since. Her family is deeply impoverished and like millions of India's poor she has been unable to secure the necessary surgery. Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh, found Ragini at a burns camp he held in her area and has arranged for her to attend his clinic where he performs free surgery for the poorest of the poor of India. She is seen at her home before surgery and on her journey to his clinic in Varnasi, India. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MIKENO, EASTERN DR CONGO, 8 APRIL 2009: Local villagers help to evacuate the body of a female mountain gorilla who has been shot by poachers. It is believed that her baby had been taken by these poachers so they could try to sell it to the highest bidder. Mountain Gorillas are extremely rare, with just over 700 in the world today. They exist in the Virunga ranges of DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. The group in DR Congo numbers just over 300 and their region is occupied by the M23 rebel group, formerly known as CNDP. Despite the conflict in the region, the gorillas remain, a fragile, threatened group that also have poachers and human encroachment to fear. The Senkwekwe Center is the only facility for critically endangered orphan mountain gorillas in the world. It is located in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, about 50 kilometers from the border town of Goma. Each gorilla at the center has suffered a traumatic poaching experience, injuries from snares, and/or losing their mothers in brutal killings. These baby gorillas were kept in horrifying conditions, close to death, until their rescue by Congolese Conservation forces. Now they are looked after by a dedicated group of conservation ranger caretakers. The center is located in a large forested enclosure with a night house and veterinarian facilities. The caretakers are with the newest orphan Ihirwe 24/7. They sleep in the same room, often holding the new orphan like fathers would a child. They interact like a family, the gorillas displaying extraordinary behavior towards their caretakers indicative of a loving and trusting relationship. In early 2009, the rangers and warden of Virunga National Park re-gained control of the gorillas sector of Virunga National Park following the takeover by General Nkunda and his CNDP rebel army. At that time awareness was raised about two young orphan mountain gorillas, Ndeze and Ndakasi, and their living conditions in a small compound in the city of Goma, full of poll

RUMANGABO, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: Andre, 39, a self described "gorilla mother" looks after 4 orphaned gorillas who were rescued from various horrific circumstances and brought into care by the staff of Virunga National Park, DRC, 2 March 2012. Andre thinks of these gorillas as his own children and even describes bringing his children to see them as showing them their brothers and sisters. Andre lives with the Gorillas 24/7 with the exception of a few days off to visit his own family. Andre is an ICCN Congolese Conservation ranger and has cared for orphaned and rescued gorillas since 2003.

RUMANGABO, VIRUNGA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 6 AUGUST 20013: Images from the Senkekwe Orphan Gorilla project as caretakers interact in the early morning with a new orphan mountain gorilla Ihirwe at ICCN headquarters, Rumangabo, DRC, 6 August 2013. It is suspected that this orphan was taken by soldiers who probably killed the mother to get the baby. When they were unable to sell it, the orphan was abandoned and the conservation rangers heard and rescued it. Wounds from a rope were evident on its chest and back, it is slowly recovering now as it lives full time with caretakers who also sleep in the enclosure with the orphan. There are a number of other orphans at the center who will be introduced to the new baby once it has been through quarantine and is accustomed to its new surroundings.

RUMANGABO, VIRUNGA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 7 AUGUST 20013: New Mountan gorilla orphan Ihirwe clings to her caretaker at Senkekwe Mountain Gorilla Orphanage at ICCN headquarters, Rumangabo, DRC, 7 August 2013. It is suspected that this orphan was taken by soldiers who probably killed the mother to get the baby. When they were unable to sell it, the orphan was abandoned and the conservation rangers heard and rescued it. Wounds from a rope were evident on its chest and back, it is slowly recovering now as it lives full time with caretakers who also sleep in the enclosure with the orphan. There are a number of other orphans at the center who will be introduced to the new baby once it has been through quarantine and is accustomed to its new surroundings. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

RUMANGABO, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: Andre, 39, a self described "gorilla mother" looks after 4 orphaned gorillas who were rescued from various horrific circumstances and brought into care by the staff of Virunga National Park, DRC, 2 March 2012. Andre thinks of these gorillas as his own children and even describes bringing his children to see them as showing them their brothers and sisters. Andre lives with the Gorillas 24/7 with the exception of a few days off to visit his own family. Andre is an ICCN Congolese Conservation ranger and has cared for orphaned and rescued gorillas since 2003. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)

AMBOSELI, KENYA, MAY 2011: Undercover Kenya Wildlife Services Ranger detusk a bull elephant killed by a spear in the Amboseli ecosystem in the shadow of Amboseli, Kenya, May 29, 2011. The elephant was killed by a single spear stroke close to the spine which penetrated deeply enough to cause massive internal bleeding. It is not known whether this was a poaching attempt or whether this was a case of human elephant conflict with the animal in the crops of local Masaai. The animal was detusked and the ivory sent to the KWS HQ in Amboseli National Park. KWS has the mandate to protect wildlife in Kenya but lack the manpower and resources. Organisations like Big Life are the private sector arm of KWS in the 2 million acre Amboseli ecosystem, working alongside them to supply manpower, vehicles, funding, information networks and aircraft to practise effective conservation in the region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

AMBOSELI, KENYA, MAY 2011: Undercover Kenya Wildlife Services Ranger detusk a bull elephant killed by a spear in the Amboseli ecosystem in the shadow of Amboseli, Kenya, May 29, 2011. The elephant was killed by a single spear stroke close to the spine which penetrated deeply enough to cause massive internal bleeding. It is not known whether this was a poaching attempt or whether this was a case of human elephant conflict with the animal in the crops of local Masaai. The animal was detusked and the ivory sent to the KWS HQ in Amboseli National Park. KWS has the mandate to protect wildlife in Kenya but lack the manpower and resources. Organisations like Big Life are the private sector arm of KWS in the 2 million acre Amboseli ecosystem, working alongside them to supply manpower, vehicles, funding, information networks and aircraft to practise effective conservation in the region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army capture illegal fisherman, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. Many of these fisherman are involved in this activity due to poverty, others are there to supply the rebel FDLR group with food. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. The fish stocks in the lake are just beginning to recover from the war, thousands of hippos were slaughtered to feed militia groups and this devastated fish stocks. This delicate recovery is what the ICCN rangers are trying to protect. This will allow a viable and sustainable fishing industry to be generated at Lake Edward, for the benefit of all. Since the FDLR fled into Virunga after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)

BOUBA NDJIDA NATIONAL PARK, NORTH CAMEROON, APRIL 2012: The largest mass killing of elephants in recent history took place at Bouba Ndjida National Park in North Cameroon close to the Chad and Central African Republic Borders from January through March 2012. Eye witnesses have so far located 340 carcasses, the ivory poachers themselves told local villagers they have killed over 650 elephants in their hunt for Ivory over the 500 000 hectare region. There has yet to be a proper aerial and ground survey of the dead elephants and the rainy season will make that difficult. The Poachers, numbering over 100 men, were mounted on horseback, led by 6 light skinned North Sudanese men and armed with RPG's, grenades, Light Machine Guns and AK47's. They were in two main groups, with a number of reconnaisance units of 4 men locating the elephants then bringing in a larger force to kill big groups. Intelligence indicates that many of the hunters came from Chad and were led by these Sudanese men. These facts have emerged from a number of eye witness acccounts, mainly by French professional hunters who saw the horsman in the Park and local hunting concessions. They had the appearence and attitude of Janjaweed fighters from the South Sudan Darfur and Chadian conflicts and were disciplined, unafraid, arrogant and extremely efficient hunters. The elephants were herded together by teams of 4 to 8 riders who then decimated them with AK47 fire, killing all the elephants they could find, including babies with no ivory. Groups as large as 53 have been gunned down together, with sections as large as 14 elephants lying within touching distance of each other. These horseman came into the area over the Chadian border, evidence of early carcasses suggests that they may have been in the park as early as October 2011. The main force began their hunt in earnest from January through to approximately 8 March 2012. It is believed there was collaboration with local poachers in this hunt as well as an as

MANYANI, TSAVO, KENYA, JULY 2011: The burning of 5 tons of trafficked Ivory recovered from a seizure in Singapore in 2002, Manyani, Tsavo, Kenya, 20 July 2011. The ivory burnt here was originally from Malawi and Zambia, 5 tons of the original 6.4 tons were burnt and the remainder will supposedly be sent back to the 2 countries of origin, Malawi and Zambia. It was burnt in Kenya under the auspices of the LATF, the Lusaka Task Force, a group of affiliated countries who are supposed to form a common front against wildlife crime in Africa. The ivory burning is regarded with some cynicism from conservation quarters, no Kenyan ivory was added to the pyre, despite stocks in excess of 65 tons and their appropriation of the PR value of this event. The Kenyans response is to say that the disposal of public assets is a parlimentary affair, with due process of the law. The minimum time it would take for this is 3 months, more than enough time for Kenya to have participated if it so chose. Wildlife crime in Kenya still remains a perceived minor crime, with a maximum fine of only $430 for the killing of an elephant for its tusks. In conservation circles this illustrates a lack of comittment on the part of the KWS to truly stamp out the illegal ivory trade within Kenya. The overwhelming perception is that KWS appropriated this event, with minimum participation from the other LATF countries, and no credit was given to the Environmental Impact Agency despite the fact that it was their intelligence operation which resulted in the seizure in the first place. KWS also attempted to charge all foreign media a fee of $700 to attend the burn, despite them being invited guests to the burning and an indispensable source of publicity for Kenya's supposed anti-ivory trade stance. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic.)

SURIN, THAILAND, NOVEMBER 2011: Luang Poo Bru Ba Dhammamunee, head abbot of Wat Suan Paa Phutthasatharn Supraditme thee Temple, photographed in Surin Elephant Village in Surin, Thailand, November 9th, 2011. The monk buys his Ivory carvings of Bhudist icons for resale purposes to his followers. He commented openly on the presence in Thailand of illegally imported African ivory and advised on how to get it into Thailand past customs authorities. He also spoke of how senior memember of the Thai parliment are behind the illegal industry. He spoke enthusiastically of business opportunities if we could get him illegal African ivory, despite his public relations campaign as a carer of elephant in Thailand. The Thai legal system has many loopholes as a result of the domestic ivory situation and Thailand is suspected of being a major transit country for illegal African ivory as a result. The sale of religious ivory icons is a big part of the domestic trade while illegal ivory and elephant goods from both Thailand and Africa regularly make their way to China. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

BEIJING, CHINA, NOVEMBER 2011: Scenes from China National Arts and Crafts Corporation - Ivory Carving factory, Beijing, China, November 17. Started in 2009 after China's big African Ivory purchase, this is supposedly the world's largest Ivory carving facility, employing more than 20 carvers and carving an alleged 750 kg of raw ivory annually. The director of the factory stated that the factory was started as a State initiative against the demise of the Ivory carving industry. State owned, it is a clear indication of the Chinese government's investment into the future of the Ivory carving trade. This factory also carves a ton of Mammoth Ivory every year. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

KIEV, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: A prisoner n the last stages of full-blown Aids who has been rushed to the Kiev Aids Center from prison receives compassionate care from a doctor while chained to the bed, The Kiev Aids Center in Kiev, Ukraine, 25 August 2011. This facility is one of two in Ukriane and deals with many drug addicts and other difficult Aids infected people. There are strict rules and conditions in the wards which staff claim are neccesary to protect them from aggressive, manic patients. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

POLTAVA, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Scenes inside Poltava Tuberculosis clinic, a facility with insufficent resources which is the only facility for Tuberculosis patients in Poltava, Ukraine, 26 August 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KHARKOV, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: An HIV+ addict who has lost his lower jawbone to the corrosive effects of "Krokodil," a deadly new Ephedrine based Amphetamine drug photographed in a small apartment in a housing project in Kharkov, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. This drug originated in Russia and has quickly moved to Ukraine. It has a corrosive effect on the human body, eating away at the flesh of needle entry points and corroding bones in the body. Mass unemployment and perceived government apathy mean that many young people turn to drugs to escape the fatalism of their lives. As a result many are infected with HIV through needle use and unprotected sex. Ukraine is the most Aids infected nation in Europe.

KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: HIV + drug addict Sacha bathes his mother every day in their small apartment in Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 31 August 2011. He takes care of her, washing her clothes, feeding her and makes sure she is cared for. Sacha is worried as he moves into full blown Aids that there will be no-one to look after his elderly mother. The reason his case is so worriesome is because there have been no new admissions allowed to the list of Anti Retro-Viral therapy recipients for those people living with full blown Aids in Ukraine since the end of 2010. Sacha is not on that list and is inelegible for treatment as a result. Nine months later in September 2011 all those people who have become critically ill but are not on the old list of ART recipients are living under a death sentence as their immune systems collapse. There is a new Government in Ukraine and the Ministry of Health controls all ART (Anti-RetroViral treatment,) medicine. As this business is put out to tender to the various pharmaceutical companies, a series of ignorances, bribes and corrupt practises hinder this vital service from coming into being in time to provide life-saving ART therapy to those who are dying without it. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Addicts undergo sleep therapy during the drug detox program at Psycho Neurological Dispensary, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 31 August 2011. This program has good success in getting patients back to a pysiological level where they can receive counselling for their addictions. (photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

POLTAVA, UKRAINE - AUGUST 12 2005: Tanya, 29, a sex-worker and drug user who is HIV+. She has an eleven year old son and lives with 5 other sex workers in a small apartment in a poor neighbourhood. She used to weigh 100 kilograms but has wasted away to nothing. She has severe septicemia on her legs and a rampant addiction. Tanya tells that sometimes in the past wealthy men would seek her out for sex as part of a bizarre "Russian roulette with Aids" scenario, where they would have unprotected sex and dice with the odds of contracting HIV. Tanya died one month after this photograph was taken. Ukraine has the highest HIV rates in Europe today.

HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Pham, 32, a man born without eyes due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)

Klerksdorp, South Africa, 25 March 2011: A man holds up a large Rhino horn in the African bush, the horn has just been removed from a White Rhino in order to save it from poaching, Klerksdorp, South Africa, 25 March 2011. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold on the international market. 100 grams of Rhino horn in Vietnam sells for $2500 to locals and over $8500 to foreign buyers, these are the prices consistently offered to our investigative team in meetings with 5 seperate dealers across the country. The demand for Rhino horn is now fueled by a newly wealthy Asian middle and upper class who can now afford the substance which was previously only the province of the wealthy. The horn is used overwhelmingly as an anti-fever, anti-toxin medication, with thousands of years of cultural belief behind the practise. This is despite the fact that Rhino horn is now an illegal substance across Asia. South Africa alone has lost more than 400 Rhino to illegal poaching incidents in 2011, to say nothing of those lost to legal hunting. There are less than 16000 rhino left in the world and at this compounded rate the Rhino is racing to extinction.

SAVE' VALLEY CONSERVANCY, MASVINGA, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of a Black Rhino Bull that has been shot 4 times by poachers and had the stump of its horn removed, Save' Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe, April 23, 2011. This Rhino had already been de-horned by a vet in order to deincentivize poachers on the property but the poachers shot him anyway and brutally removed the stump of horn that remained. He was left for dead but was found wandering through the bush approximately 4 days after the incident, his face bleeding and screw-worm breeding in the wound. A decision was made to keep the animal alive rather than put him down and heavy doses of anti-biotics were administered. This Rhino died from his wounds one week after this photo was taken. Save' Valley Conservancy has lost a total of 66 Rhino to Poachers since 2002, including 10 in 2011. Rhino game ranchers in Zimbabwe speak of a number of issues when it comes to protecting their animals in Zimbabwe. There are issues of politics which affect the number of tourists that visit, this has been very low since 2000. Despite the fact that the Rhino actually belong to the state, private ranchers are asked to hire government Rangers from the State at considerable expense in order to protect them. This makes the economics of raising Rhino very difficult. Issues of security are difficult as it is hard to procure automatic weapons from a paranoid government and prosecution for the shooting of poachers can be very biased towards the locals. There is a perception on the part of government that training of Rangers is paramilitary and thus a threat.

TUGELA PRIVATE GAME RESERVE, COLENSO, NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, NOVEMBER 2010: Images of a female rhino who 4 months ago survived a brutal dehorning by poachers who used a chainsaw to remove her horns and a large section of bone in this area of her skull, Natal, South Africa, November 9, 2010. The poachers surveyed the area by helicopter, mapped out the movements of the Rhino and the Guards and then darted the animal and hacked of the horn with a chainsaw. In an act of callous brutality they left the animal alive when they left with her horns. This Rhino was consequently found the next day wandering around in unimaginable pain. She also had a young 4 week old calf who was seperated in the incident and subsequently died of starvation and dehydration. The female adult miraculously survived the dehorning and with some supervision has gone on to join up with a male bull who accompanies her and helps her to survive.

HOEDSPRUIT, SOUTH AFRICA, APRIL 2011: A White Rhino snared and killed for its horns 5 days before on Selati private game reserve in the Hoedspruit area of South Africa, April 9 2011. This animal was one of two to die this way in a two day period. Rhino killing has now become opportunistic in Africa with many poachers who previously would only snare smaller animals trying to take advantage of the Asian market for Rhino horn. The pursuit of rhino horn has moved beyond the realm of professional hunters into a much larger circle with links to organized crime.

iMFOLOZI GAME RESERVE, NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 2011: Images of a White Rhino mother and calf in the landscape of iMfolozi Game Reserve in Natal, South Africa, May 1, 2011. Hluwhluwe iMfolozi Game Reserve is the worlds largest repository of Rhino, with an estimated 2300 rhino in total, a majority of which are White with a large contingent of Black Rhino. This terrain is considered to be representative of how Rhino have lived on Earth for thousands of years. With over 400 Rhino killed for their horn in 2011 in South Africa alone, the species is racing towards extinction because of the insatiable appetite for medicinal Rhino horn amongst the new Asian elites.

VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of newly formed IAPF, The International Anti-Poaching Foundation, leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rhino protection for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. Mander has used his own money to start the organization. Rangers in Zimbabwe have little access to automatic weapons and good training and are struggling to contain rampant Rhino horn poaching across the country. Zimbabwe has significant Black Rhino numbers, of which there are now less than 3500 left in the world today.

KLERKSDORP, SOUTH AFRICA, MARCH 2011: A White Rhino cow is de-horned as a precautionary anti-poaching measure on a game farm outside of Klerksdorp, South Africa, March 25 2011. The Vet's assistant is seen holding the horns for an identity picture while the Vet does a final check on the animal. Rhino Poaching has reached epedemic proportions in South Africa, with 334 killed in 2010 and over 400 killed in 2011. Many game farmers are increasingly turning to de-horning their animals as a protective measure against poaching. A 2 year study in Zimbabwe on the effects of de-horning has revealed no negative repercussions to the animal, and has seen less animals killed through fighting and horn damage. A large horn grows back after 5 years to its full size without trauma to the animal and thus can be seen as a renewable, sustainable resource for the Asian markets if legalized. At this time the only legal means to obtain a horn in South Africa is through a permitted hunt with a member of the conservation authority present. This means that the animal has to die before the horn is available. Statistics on poaching prove that the lack of access to legal horn has seen poaching become common practise and the price of Rhino horn has reached an all time high, surpassing that of gold. The counter argument to de-horning for profit is that it will lead to an interference in the natural world and an abuse of the resource in terms of animal treatment. Most Vets across South Africa have adopted de-horning as a neccesary anti-poaching technique to save the animals from being killed for their horn. On average a de-horning takes an experienced vet no more than 25 minutes to do from start to finish and the animal goes straight back to feeding with no visible sign of trauma afterwards. A standard 8 cms of stump is left behind, ensuring no actual tissue is ever damaged on the Rhino. The horns once taken are fitted with micro-chips, individually permitted and in most cases stored in bank vaults

OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, KENYA, JULY 2011: A four man anti-poaching team permanently guards a Northern White Rhino on Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, 13 July 2011. The Ol Pejeta Conservancy is an important “not-for-profit” wildlife conservancy in the Laikipia District of Kenya and the largest sanctuary for black rhinos in East Africa. It is also the home of 4 of the world's remaining 8 Northern White Rhino, the worlds most endangered animal. There has been an increase in poaching incidents on Ol Pejeta recently, in line with a massive worldwide increase in rhino poaching linked to the rise in the Asian middle class. Anti-poaching teams provide close protection to the rhino, with 24 hour observation over all rhino on Ol Pejeta and 24 hour armed guard protection over the 4 Northern White Rhino who are kept in their own Boma area. The team have developed extraordinary relationships with these Rhino, leaning on them, scratching them and displaying tremendous affection towards these most endangered of animals. Each of the men in these teams feels a genuine vocation towards the protection of these animals, something the rhino seem to sense, and this emerges on a daily basis as the men walk with the rhino through their day.

Baoloc, Vietnam, 6 October 2011: A wealthy Vietnamese woman sits and grinds Rhino horn for her personal consumption in a roadside café in Baoloc, Vietnam. The dealer who sold her the horn sits next to her. Rhino Horn is an illegal substance in Vietnam yet both the woman and her dealer have no fear of the police, grinding the horn in a café in full view of the street. The dealer states that he pays $1500 a month to the right people and they can carry on with impunity. The woman says that it has cured her Kidney Stones and now she takes it daily for her general health. Rhino horn is generally used as a fever reducing agent and for the removal of toxins across Vietnam, the biggest market for horn today. Rhino horn has even been held up as a cure for Cancer by a senior Minister in the Vietnamese government. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold on the international market. 100 grams of Rhino horn in Vietnam sells for $2500 to locals and over $8500 to foreign buyers, these were the prices consistently offered to our investigative team in meetings with 5 separate dealers across the country in October 2011. The demand for Rhino horn is now fueled by a newly wealthy Asian middle and upper class that can afford the substance which was previously only for the wealthy. The price is further affected by the controlling influence of organized crime. The horn is used overwhelmingly as an anti-fever, anti-toxins medication, with thousands of years of cultural belief behind the practice. This is despite the fact that Rhino horn is now an illegal substance around the world. South Africa alone has lost more than 400 Rhino to illegal poaching incidents in 2011, to say nothing of those lost to legal hunting. There are less than 16000 rhino left in the world and at this compounded rate of killing, the Rhino is racing to extinction.

BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)

BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)

BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)

RWINDI, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DRC, MARCH 2012: A combined ICCN conservation Ranger force and FARDC Congolese Army soldiers patrol both the road and inland in the Virunga National Park at Rwindi, DRC, March 8 2012. This reconnaisance patrol was conducted because of an FDLR rebel hijacking which occured on the road 2 days earlier but protecting the civilians who travel on the road through the park is now the mandate of the Rangers, a job which saw 9 Rangers killed last year. The Ranger camp has been attacked by in recent times by both FDLR, the Rwandan Hutu Genocidaires living illegally in Virunga as well as CNDP, a rebel break away faction of the Congolese army. Rwindi remains a harcore flashpoint for contacts between FDLR and Rangers on patrol in the Park. 9 Rangers were killed in Rwindi in 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportge for GEO magazine.)

CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: A combined team of ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army patrol an area known to have a FDLR rebel presence, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. Since they fled into the DRC and the park after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)

CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army capture illegal fisherman, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. Many of these fisherman are involved in this activity due to poverty, others are there to supply the rebel FDLR group with food. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. The fish stocks in the lake are just beginning to recover from the war, thousands of hippos were slaughtered to feed militia groups and this devastated fish stocks. This delicate recovery is what the ICCN rangers are trying to protect. This will allow a viable and sustainable fishing industry to be generated at Lake Edward, for the benefit of all. Since the FDLR fled into Virunga after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)

KIBATI, CLOSE TO GOMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK,NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-23 FEBRUARY 2008: ICCN Rangers conduct a raiding patrol into an area of illegal Charcoal production. They arrested a number of mules, poor people from displaced communities who are being used by the real powers behind Charcoal production in the area. These players include members of the Congolese military, the FDLR Interhamwe rebels and big businessmen in Goma. The ICCN Rangers were shot at by FDLR as they were completing their mission. This is an area known to be under their influence. ICCN Advance Force rangers at the Kibati Station are conducting roadblocks and vehicle searches for illegal charcoal in Virunga National Park. They are being assisted by members of the Congolese military police who are looking to stamp out their own military's involment in the illegal charcoal industry. The ICCN Ranger's job is complicated by the large number of Congolese military travelling on many of the vehicles and also by the fact that the Charcoal producers are increasingly turning to military vehicles as their means of transport as the Rangers until today had no rights to search vehicles of the Congolese Army. There is complicity between bad elements of the Congolese military, the rebel FDLR Interhamwe militias in the Charcoal industry, rumoured to be worth around 30 million dollars a year in the Goma region of DRC. Rwanda recently banned the production of charcoal which has led to increased prices and demand. The ranger's job is further complicated by the fact that the area is desperately poor and people have a hard time accepting this ban on one of the very few opportunities they feel they have to actually make some money. (Photo by Brent Stirton. ) For verification phone Rob Muir +243 997251960 in Goma.

ISHANGO RANGER STATION, NORTHERN SECTOR, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, NORTH KIVU, RUWENZORI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-27 FEBRUARY 2008: ICCN Ranger Kambale Kalibumba was killed today by a rogue FARDC Congolese soldier who allegedly had a fallout with his commander over a disciplinary issue and left the base on a killing spree. The soldier left the army base and walked into the park. He encountered a local doctor on a motorbike and demanded the motorbike. When the doctor refused the soldier shot him multiple times. The Soldier rode on and the next person he encountered was ICCN Ranger Kambale Kalibumba. The Ranger was walking with a small girl at the time, the daughter of a friend. The soldier allegedly beckoned the Ranger over as he knew the Ranger would discover the dead doctor and raise the alarm. The soldier then shot the Ranger 5 times at close range. The girl fled into the bushes and raised the alarm. At the time the Ranger was in the park on the way to the Ishango post with rations for the patrol. More than 100 rangers have died in the last ten years as a result of their work in Virunga National Park. These pictures depict the dead rangers at the local Red Cross clinic in the village and the body being delivered to the Ishango Ranger Station to be driven to Mutsora Ranger station, the headquarters for the Northern Sector region. (Photo by Brent Stirton. ) For verification phone Rob Muir at the Frankfurt Zoological Society +243 997251960 in Goma and Emanuel De Merode at Wildlife Direct on +254 721344504 or Brent Stirton at +44 7795 060 715 or +1 347 386 0429.)

KIBATI, CLOSE TO GOMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK,NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-23 FEBRUARY 2008: Daily scenes at Kibati ICCN Rangers station. ICCN Advance Force rangers at the Kibati Station are conducting roadblocks and vehicle searches for illegal charcoal in Virunga National Park. They are being assisted by members of the Congolese military police who are looking to stamp out their own military's involment in the illegal charcoal industry. The ICCN Ranger's job is complicated by the large number of Congolese military travelling on many of the vehicles and also by the fact that the Charcoal producers are increasingly turning to military vehicles as their means of transport as the Rangers until today had no rights to search vehicles of the Congolese Army. There is complicity between bad elements of the Congolese military, the rebel FDLR Interhamwe militias in the Charcoal industry, rumoured to be worth around 30 million dollars a year in the Goma region of DRC. Rwanda recently banned the production of charcoal which has led to increased prices and demand. The ranger's job is further complicated by the fact that the area is desperately poor and people have a hard time accepting this ban on one of the very few opportunities they feel they have to actually make some money. (Photo by Brent Stirton. ) For verification phone Rob Muir +243 997251960 in Goma.

TASSILI 'N AJJER, SOUTHERN ALGERIA, APRIL 2009: Images of famed tourist site and traditional Tuareg land, Tassili 'n Ajjer, in the south of Algeria, 02 May 2009. (photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic Magazine.)

TIMBUKTU REGION, MALI, 21 SEPTEMBER 2009: Tuareg Nomads end the Ramadan fast in the desert about 50 kilometers outside of Timbuktu with prayer and dancing, Timbuktu Region, Mali, September 21 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

INGAL, NIGER, OCTOBER 2009: Scenes at a Baptism in a Tuareg Nomad camp, Ingal Region, Niger, 11 October 2009. Tuareg Baptism is very simple, three names are discussed by elders and then straws are drawn to choose the final name. The women perform a ritual of walking around the tent in a line with the leading woman brandishing two knives to symbolically cut away misfortune from the future of the child. The women then dance and sing and play the drums while men prepare goat mead and drink tea and discuss things while people visit from the surrounding nomad camps. Tuareg Nomads have two traditional priorities, their animals and access to water. This group has moved to this region at this time to enjoy the remaining good grassland of the rainy season and will soon move again to be close to a good water source. The nomads survive on a diet of millet and camel milk which is occasionally supplemented by goat meat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

INGAL, NIGER, OCTOBER 2009: Two young Tuareg women have their hair dressed by other Tuareg women inside a traditional nomad tent at a Tuareg Nomad camp, Ingal Region, Niger, 11 October 2009. Tuareg Nomads have two traditional priorities, their animals and access to water. This group has moved to this region at this time to enjoy the remaining good grassland of the rainy season and will soon move again to be close to a good water source. The nomads survive on a diet of millet and camel milk which is occasionally supplemented by goat meat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

DAG ALLAL, TIMBUKTU, MALI, SEPTEMBER 2009: Tuareg men plant grass in the banks of the Niger River to grow a forage crop for their animals and for sale in the markets in the sedentary Tuareg village of Dag Allal in Mali on 11 September 2009. This group is very unusual amongst Tuareg for their sedentary, non-nomadic existence. These traditional nomadic people now remain in place all year round and care for their animals by utilizing agricultural techniques. Global warming, Uranium mining exploration and armed rebellion have destroyed most of their traditional nomadic grazing so to survive these Tuaregs now grow rice and forage grass in the nearby Niger river, using a canal and small pump to divert water into ricepaddies. Their leader, El Hadg Agali Ag Mohammoud, 70, explains that reasons of drought, rebellion, identity issues and a lack of union amongst the Tuareg caused this group to choose to remain in one place, "We live here all year, we take care of our animals by growing the grass that they wouldn't normally have in the hot summer months, other Tuareg don't always understand this, they think that this grass grows naturally. We sometimes have to prevent them taking it, we have to explain that we grow it for our animals and it is not free. Sometimes there is a confrontation as a result, this is not the traditional Tuareg way so we have to explain it to them. I think in the future there will be more Tuareg living this way.

MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: Widows of SLDF leadership as well as from the civilian population photographed in an area notorious for conflict in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 11, 2011. This is a ongoing land conflict, the latest round instigated by in 2006 by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide up and resettle for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: A 72 year old female victim of violence in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 8, 2011. The woman had her ear cut off as an intimidation technique by the SLDF. This is a conflict instigated by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide into small plots for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: Hevron Masike,40, a farmer who was shot by militia men of the SLDF in 2008 in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 9, 2011. Hevron got up late at night to relieve himself and ran into a SLDF militia group out on an intimidation campaign. They shot him 3 times and then opened fire on his home, killing his wife and young son. Hevron survived but lost all his cattle and has been incapacitated ever since. He has steel plates in his let and a catheter through which he has to urinate. He cannot afford the twice monthly hospital check-ups and is likely to succumb to infection. He has no family to support him. This is a conflict instigated by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide into small plots for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage

MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: A Mt Elgon man with mental issues as a result of being a victim of violence from both sides in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 8, 2011. This man had his ear cut off as an intimidation technique by the SLDF rebel movement. Soon thereafter he was brutally beaten by the Kenyan Army as part of their campaign to stamp out the SLDF through intimidating the local population into giving up any knowledge they might have of the movement. He has not recovered from those experiences three years later. This is a conflict instigated by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide into small plots for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: The Imam of the Djingareiber Mosque, Timbuktu's oldest and most important Islamic place of worship, seen during Ramadan, September 6, 2009. Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, Islam is at the heart of that learning as is medicine, science, law and technology. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

TIMBUKTU, MALI, JANUARY 2010: Late Afternoon scenes at a funeral in the streets of Timbuktu, MALI, 5 JANUARY 2010. Funerals in Timbuktu are conducted separately, with the woman mourning inside the house of the deceased and the men outside on the street involved in prayers and remembrance in the Islamic tradition. (PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC.)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Timbuktu Marabout Mohamed Lamine ould Seing Almoustapha counsels a psychologically disturbed man who is chained to a post in the Marabout's home, 19 September 2009. Marabout's are the Timbuktu equivalent of a therapist but with more than a little of the supernatural thrown in. The Marabout here is tending a man who has been voluntarily turned over to him by the man's family and chained up for the 40 day period of the therapy. Almoustapha caters mostly to the mentally disturbed and also to infertile women but he also manufactures "Gris-Gris," talisman pieces which he prepares to protect against harm and other evils. He recently was held to task when a Mali army colonel was executed in his own home in Timbuktu by members of Al Quaeda despite wearing a Gris-Gris prepared by this Marabout. Anther Mali Army colonel also died pursuing the Al Quaeda attackers, he too was wearing Gris-Gris prepared by Almoustapha. The Marabout defends himself by saying that insufficent animal sacrifices were made by these two colonels to strengthen the Gris-Gris powers and that is why they died. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Scenes from the port of Timbuktu at the apex of the Niger River, Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa on 12 September 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Children play in the rain in a welcome respite from the desert heat in a street scene in Timbuktu, a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, , September 11, 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

Paul Veller gets up every morning and goes to work to hand out News papers before 5. Working on a corner in the Bronx Paul greets every person with a huge smile and great energey. Paul works as a Newspaper man only part time for extra cash and can normally be found at TGI fridays where he is a cheif.

ORANIA, NORTH WEST CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, JULY 2010: Niklas Kirsten, a former South African Army Paratrooper, teaches Erik Du Pree hand-gun self-defence in the fields outside Orania, South Africa , July 18 2010. Orania is a privately owned South African town located along the Orange River in the Northern Cape Province. Orania is a former government workers village originally bought by a group of Afrikaners in 1991 from the South African government with the intention of creating a pure Afrikaner community which would function as a stronghold for conservative Afrikaner cultural and religious values. The community sees themselves as independant from the rest of South Africa with a goal of a self-determining Afrikaner homeland. All work in Orania is done by white Afrikaners. They do not see themselves as right wing, but are very concerned with their ultra conservative cultural and religious integrity and independence. They welcome anyone who shares those values and as a result are one hundred percent white in ethnicity. THere has been a steady rise in population numbers for Orania, due to ongoing disenfranchisement of white South Africans as a result of Black Empowerment policies of the ANC government as well as undiminished, traumatically high crime statistics which are driving whites to seek shelter in perceived safer communities such as Orania. There has also been a solid increase in the numbers of professional people moving to Orania in the face of the afore mentioned drivers. This has been further impacted by the existence of two schools in Orania, the Volkskool Orania and the CVO Skool Orania, both of which expouse a conservative Christian Afrikaner curriculum with special emphasis on Afrikaner history and religion. The Volkskool uses a self driven teaching system which relies on self-motivation by students and the CVO Skool runs along more conventional lines. Neither school receives any assistance by government but both have grown enormously over the the la

ORANIA, NORTH WEST CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, JULY 2010: Pastor Andre Boshoff, the leader of the Afrikaaner Protestant Church, an ultra-conservative breakway of the Dutch Reformed Church, Orania, South Africa, 18 July 2010. Orania is a privately owned South African town located along the Orange River in the Northern Cape Province. Orania is a former government workers village originally bought by a group of Afrikaners in 1991 from the South African government with the intention of creating a pure Afrikaner community which would function as a stronghold for conservative Afrikaner cultural and religious values. The community sees themselves as independant from the rest of South Africa with a goal of a self-determining Afrikaner homeland. All work in Orania is done by white Afrikaners. They do not see themselves as right wing, but are very concerned with their ultra conservative cultural and religious integrity and independence. They welcome anyone who shares those values and as a result are one hundred percent white in ethnicity. THere has been a steady rise in population numbers for Orania, due to ongoing disenfranchisement of white South Africans as a result of Black Empowerment policies of the ANC government as well as undiminished, traumatically high crime statistics which are driving whites to seek shelter in perceived safer communities such as Orania. There has also been a solid increase in the numbers of professional people moving to Orania in the face of the afore mentioned drivers. This has been further impacted by the existence of two schools in Orania, the Volkskool Orania and the CVO Skool Orania, both of which expouse a conservative Christian Afrikaner curriculum with special emphasis on Afrikaner history and religion. The Volkskool uses a self driven teaching system which relies on self-motivation by students and the CVO Skool runs along more conventional lines. Neither school receives any assistance by government but both have grown enormously over th

ORANIA, NORTH WEST CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, JULY 2010: Afrikaner Schoolchildren from the conservative Afrikaner CVO School in traditional "Volkspeel" clothing at a cultural day, July 18, 2010. Orania is a former government workers village originally bought by a group of Afrikaners in 1991 from the South African government with the intention of creating a pure Afrikaner community which would function as a stronghold for conservative Afrikaner cultural and religious values. The community sees themselves as independant from the rest of South Africa with a goal of a self-determining Afrikaner homeland. All work in Orania is done by white Afrikaners. They do not see themselves as right wing, but are very concerned with their ultra conservative cultural and religious integrity and independence. They welcome anyone who shares those values and as a result are one hundred percent white in ethnicity. THere has been a steady rise in population numbers for Orania, due to ongoing disenfranchisement of white South Africans as a result of Black Empowerment policies of the ANC government as well as undiminished, traumatically high crime statistics which are driving whites to seek shelter in perceived safer communities such as Orania. There has also been a solid increase in the numbers of professional people moving to Orania in the face of the afore mentioned drivers. This has been further impacted by the existence of two schools in Orania, the Volkskool Orania and the CVO Skool Orania, both of which expouse a conservative Christian Afrikaner curriculum with special emphasis on Afrikaner history and religion. The Volkskool uses a self driven teaching system which relies on self-motivation by students and the CVO Skool runs along more conventional lines. Neither school receives any assistance by government but both have grown enormously over the the last 5 years in Orania. The CVO skool system has over 50 branches throughout the country and expects further growth to continue. Afr

ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young MDC Zimbabwe oppostion party burn victim, name withheld, sits alone in his room in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe, 24 June 2009. At the conclusion of 2008's March elections in Zimbabwe where the MDC emerged the winner, two Zanu PF sponsored Zimbabwean Army soldiers appeared at the MDC offices in Zaka. The soldiers shot one MDC worker in cold blood outside the office, shot another inside the office and then locked 3 more MDC officials inside and proceeded to pour 20 litres of petrol over the building, set it alight and fled. In the resultant blaze all three men suffered third degree burns before they were able to break down the door and escape. They suffered for three days without any treatment before they could reach a facility which could treat them. Once there, doctors were forced to hide the three men as Zanu PF supporters came looking for them with the intention of finishing the job the soldiers had started. The young man in the picture, a former MDC defence and security activist, now has limited use of his hands and is blind in one eye. In a country currently at 85% unemployment he can no longer even provide manual labour in his village's rural fields. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young widow holds her child in a house destroyed by Zanu PF in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe, 24 June 2009. She lost her husband at the conclusion of 2008's March elections in Zimbabwe where the MDC emerged the winner. Two Zanu PF sponsored Zimbabwean Army soldiers appeared at the MDC offices in Zaka. The soldiers shot one MDC worker in cold blood outside the office, shot another inside the office and then locked 3 more MDC officials inside and proceeded to pour 20 litres of petrol over the building, set it alight and fled. In the resultant blaze all three men suffered third degree burns before they were able to break down the door and escape. They suffered for three days without any treatment before they could reach a facility which could treat them. Once there, doctors were forced to hide the three men as Zanu PF supporters came looking for them with the intention of finishing the job the soldiers had started. This young widow is now dependant on the kindness of those around her for the liveliehoods of herself and her two orphaned children. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

HARARE, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young MDC activist, 25, name withheld, sits quietly in a bedroom he rents in a shack in a makeshift township in Harare, Zimbabwe, 22 June 2009. The young man is the district security officer for the MDC in Harare East and for his political affiliation he has been arrested more than 15 times, he has been severely tortured on 4 occasions and has the scars on his body to prove it. He claims that electroshock was used on him in police cells and that he was repeatedly beaten with bike chains and iron bars. This has resulted in his diminished physical capacity which has made it very difficult for him to work. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, JUNE 2009: Images of Alice Machando, 31, a school teacher for Gweru, Zimbabwe, who now lives as an unemployed asylum seeker in Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 2009. Alice is an MDC youth activist who was abducted during the last Zimbabwe elections by Zanu PF party thugs, they tortured and abused her and ever since that incident she has suffered from a mysterious skin ailment which South African doctors cannot identify. Alice says that two other teachers who were also abducted and tortured have similar complications. Alice wishes above all else to be cured of her ailment so that she can return to Gweru so that she can continue with her job of teaching students in her part of Zimbabwe. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, JUNE 2009: Noel Mguti, 33, is a recently arrived Zimbabwean refugee living in dire poverty in Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 2009. He is the former organising secretary for the opposition MDC party in Midlands, Zimbabwe. Mguti was abducted and tortured by Zanu PF party youth, who broke most of his ribs and destroyed his homestead with fire on the 26 April 2008. Mguti was forced to abandon his family and flee illegally into South Africa, pursued across Zimbabwe by Zanu PF youth who were intent on killing him. Mguti, along with thousands of other Zimbabwean refugees, is entirely reliant on the very few church groups and NGO's who are trying to aid in the Zimbabwean crisis. He works unpaid as a security guard at the Central Methodist Church in Johannesburg where he sleeps. Mguti is asmathic and diabetic and must often beg for food to survive. His injuries as a result of torture combined with his health problems make it impossible for him to find work in physical labor and his illegal status means he cannot be employed in the white collar work sector. At the time of this photograph Mguti had just heard that one of his children had died of a fractured skull in Zimbabwe. Despite tremendous personal risk, Mguti was trying to raise the funds to go back and bury that child in his home district of Zimbabwe. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, JUNE 2009: Susan Matsunga, 30, is a former MDC Zimbabwean opposition party Secretary for Gender on a National level, she is photographed in her half of a one bedroom shack in Lenasia, Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 2009. Susan was a very active organiser for the MDC, her primary role was to identify and build the future female MP's of Zimbabwe. In the run-up to the 2008 election in Zimbabwe Susan and her MDC youth compatriots attempted to hold prayer meetings and galvanise the youth. Police attacked their gathering and beat people until they dragged off to the police station where despite their wounds they were made to keep silent and denied food and water. All MDC supporters were made to lie flat and the police walked amongst them, beating them for over an hour. When Morgan Tsangarai, the leader of the MDC arrived and asked what the police were doing, they said they were waiting for him. The police then beat him to a pulp along with the others. In this beating Susan's right arm and leg were fractured but still she was forced to climb into a cattle truck along with the others where they were driven to Central Police Station in Harare. Here Susan was tortured for a further 4 days, her torture included the use of electric shock devices on her genitals. She was taken to a room with blood sprayed across the walls. The CIO officers holding her said that she must also leave her blood in this room. At this time Susan's mother, 67, was also arrested and badly beaten. After a number of days Susan was told she must drink 5 litres of contaminated water and then she could go. The CIO visited her in hospital where they told her that if she did not campaign for Mugabe they would kill her. They held syringes in their hands while they were saying this. After her ordeal Susan's husband left her as a result of her affiliation with the MDC. Susan fled to South Africa where she had no papers, passport or ID documents. Sympathetic border guards let he

RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE, KENYA, NOVEMBER 2009: An emaciated Samburu Elder pastoralist stands in his burnt-out cattle boma at at time of the worst drought in Kenya for the last 100 years, 20 November 2009. It is traditional for the Samburu and other pastoralist groups to burn their bomas if they lose their cattle to disease or drought, it is done as a cathartic excercise to remove the bad luck of the old and hopefully bring about better luck for the future. Many Samburu have lost up to 95% of their herds, making starvation a real threat over the coming months. The drought has brought about increasingly deadly conflict between pastoralists as well as conservationists all competing for grazing land. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE, KENYA, NOVEMBER 2009: Images of a massacre site where the Pokot tribesman came out of the Rift Valley, their traditional area, and attacked a Samburu village over cattle grazing rights in the north of Kenya at a time of the worst drought in the region for the last 100 years, 20 November 2009. 25 Samburu men, women and children were killed in the attack, over 50 cattle were shot and over 300 died later in the week from not being able to access grazing land because of the threat of the Pokot. The drought has brought about increasingly deadly conflict between pastoralists as well as conservationists all competing for grazing land. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE, KENYA, NOVEMBER 2009: Controversial Kenyan Administrative Police search for weapons and suspects as they move through a Samburu village in the region of Samburu National Park in the north of Kenya at a time of the worst drought in Kenya for the last 100 years, 20 November 2009. 2 days after these pictures were taken, 12 people were killed in this area by the AP's, with claims of political motivations behind the killings. Most of the Samburu cattle have succumbed to the worst drought to hit Kenya in over 100 years and many Samburu now face starvation as a result of their decimated herds being unable to supply a steady food supply for communities. Tensions are high as pastoralists tribes as well as conservationists are all competing for tiny pockets of grazing land. Cattle raiding is commonplace and increasingly armed conflict over grazing rights is becoming the norm. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

LAISAMIS, MARSABIT SOUTH, NORTH KENYA: A Kenya Police reservist guards Borana cattle which were raided by Rendille Moran tribesman in retaliation for a huge Boran raid in September 2009, North of Kenya, 27 February 2010. The police are being assisted in this matter by the members of the Melako Conservancy who are formed from the local community and are involved in conservancy and other peace-keeping affairs for the region. A cattle exchange is planned between the Rendille and the Borana which will be mediated by the Melako conservancy comittee and the police. North Kenya is currently undergoing an intense disarmament process in which the Kenyan Army and Administrative Police are trying to disarm the local tribes, mainly the Borana, the Samburu, the Rendille and Somalis, amongst others. This process is controversial as the tribes feel they have to have weapons to protect against cattle raids from the other tribes. This is an age old conflict but the Rendille and Samburu feel especially vulnerable as the Borana exist on both sides of the border region with Kenya and can thus access weapons from their fellow tribesmen on the Ethiopian side. This is also true of the Somalis and as such the Rendille and Samburu feel especially vulnerable. Although weapons have been collected there are many stories of violence by the Kenyan authorities against the tribes in this process, especially against the Samburu and the Rendille. This process has not been helped by the fact that many of the biggest cattle raids in history have been made by the Borana against the Rendille and Samburu in the last year. It looks unlikely that of the 23 000 weapons allegedly in the field only a few hundred have thus far been collected. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)

KOYA, MARSABIT SOUTH, NORTH KENYA: Melako Conservancy Scouts patrol around abandoned buildings in Koya, an area which became a vast no mans land after extensive cattle raiding between the Rendille tribe and the Borana tribe, Koya, north Kenya, 28 February 2010. Images of tribal conflict and cattle and wildlife raids adorn the walls of an abandoned clinic illustrating the tensions of the area. The Rendille ended up moving 42 kilometers away and the Borana also pulled back, leaving a viable pastoral and conservation area deserted and contentious. The Melako Conservancy community group with the help of the Northern Rangelands trust are trying to rehabilitate the area for both Pastoralists and for wildlife tourism. The scouts are appointed by the community and with the help of a few Kenya Administrative Police are trying to secure the area and the wildlife so that people may safely return and invest in the area for both their cattle and tourism returns. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)

MINDIMA VILLAGE, CHIMBU PROVINCE, HIGHLANDS, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-DECEMBER 2008: A traditionally dressed elder in a village in Chimbu Province, Highlands, Papua New Guinea, 18 December 2008. These outfits will be worn only on special occasions, namely Sing-Sing tribal get-togethers, Moka Compensation ceremonies, Bride-Price ceremonies and feasts. The man in the picture is a leader in the village and he is on his way to a compensation ceremony in which money and pigs will be exchanged for a land deal with another village. This convoluted process of compensation is part of the traditional way of life of village people. It is based on a system which addresses a community rather than individuals and is meant as an insurance system for the general well-being of all. In reality it limits access to education and medicine and is in many ways similar to compensation litigation in the USA. No-one benefits in the long term as individual efforts are closely monitored for flaws for which compensation is then sought, this often results in a one step forwards, two steps backwards mentality. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

LAKE MURRAY, WESTERN PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-JANUARY 2008: Scenes of kids enjoying the lake in Kubut Village, Lake Murray, Papua New Guinea, 1 January 2009. Lake Murray is a region where people have lived lives in harmony with nature for centuries. People make their living by hunting, farming, fishing, and growing rubber trees and now also with Eco-forestry. Their life-styles are dependant on the harmony between them and nature and they are trying to ensure a sustainable relationship for future generations. This has been complicated and compromised by the interventions of both international mining and logging groups over the last few decades but local community resistance is growing as rising anger mounts at the environmental damage done to rivers and forests which form the backbone of the village survival system. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MIDDLE SEPIK, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-DECEMBER 2008: The interior of a family hut in a Karawari village of the middle Sepik river, 15 December 2008. The Karawari are the most remote of the floodplains people, with many vllages along the river barely a generation old. The most recent settlements date only from 1996. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PORGERA, PAPUA NEW GUINEA HIGHLANDS, NOVEMBER 2010: An impoverished Papuan family illegally prospects in a mine tailings river with heavy metal laden waters on the outskirts of the Porgera Joint Venture Mine, Papua New Guinea, Porgera, Papua New Guinea, 21 November 2010. These empoverished people engage in illegal mining on the dumps and tailings outflow areas of the mine in order to survive. They take their five year old daughter and their 7 year old son with them on their daily mining excercises, child workers are a common site on these dumps which are both toxic and a highly dangerous illegal environment. Many of these local people sold their land to the mine for a period of the operational life of the mine. They underestimated how long the mine would keep going and the expansion thereof. The Mine dumps now flow onto the last viable land of these local people and they illegally mine those dumps to eke out a living. The ability to grow vegetable gardens is very limited and there is no hunting anymore. There are regular clashes between these illegal miners and the Porgera Joint Venture mine security force. That security force has regularly beaten, detained and handed these miners over to the police. When the illegal female miners are caught they are often offered a choice of rape or jail. There are a number of reported incidents of gang rape, with the victims too scared to file charges in court. The mine finances both its own security force of ex policeman and military as well as the local PNG government police who they have brought to the area. The environmental damage caused by the Porega Mine is a major threat to this landscape and the wellbeing of the local people who have lived in harmony with their environment for centuries. The Porgera Joint Venture Mine dumps 6.2 million tons of tailings sediment into the local river system every year. Close to the mine the waters are red from these tailings and it is feared that long term damage of the river system is inev

Daily life in Papua New Guinea

PUKAPUKI, PAPUA NEW GUINEA, AUGUST 2004: A local man showers underneath a waterfall in the rainforest close to his village in the mountains of Papua New Guinea. Traditional ways of life are under threat in Papua as villages have very little means of raising money through which to educate their children and pay medical bills. Traditional ways of life are based on sustainable farming and hunting practise. As Papuans move towards a more western lifestyle and the government attempts to raise capital for modernisation, villages are selling their natural resources such as the timber of the rainforest. This is a non-sustainable practise at this point and is having a devastating effect on water supply, traditional river routes and erosion patterns. Education as to these factors is a vital but lacking components in this transition period for Papua New Guinea. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES

KIKA, CAMEROON, JULY 2010: Members of the Baka Pygmy tribe, the original forest dwellers of the Cameroon forests, Kika, Cameroon, June 9, 2010. The Baka have small logging concessions of their own in community forest areas but are plaughed by a lack of education, logging equipment, access to markets and an addiction to alcohol fostered by their Bantu neighbours who ruled them for many years and who often pay the Baka for labor in alcohol. Logging roads and subsequent small towns created by logging concessions are bringing man and infrastructure further into the forest of Cameroon than ever before, Kika, Cameroon, June 5, 2010. This is severely threatening the great forests of the Congo Basin, one of the last great Forest reserves in the world. The Congo Basin forests cover an area the combined size of France and South Africa. The forests of Cameroon form a large part of this basin. Still relatively intact and connected, these forest ecosystems and freshwater systems are home to abundant wildlife and provide food, shelter, clean water and protection against floods to more than 75 million people. The economic value of these systems is enormous. Timber alone is worth several Billion Euros annually to the Forest industry, while minerals are also being heavily exploited. The importance of the Congo Basin as a global, natural reservoir to store Carbon is also massive. CO2 emissions from deforestation of this region could be devastating for agriculture and water resources. The challenges for Cameroon are enormous. If social and economic development needs are to be met, then development will have to be sustainable. As such a number of key threats will have to be addressed: 1. Unsustainable Timber exploitation – as much 50% of all timber from the region is believed to be illegal. This represents 10-15 billion Euros annually. 2. Major Infrastructure Development – this is linked to the increasing exploitation of logging, mining and oil exploration as well as potential dam

Yemen and the Guantanamo connection

SHEBAM-KAWBABAN, YEMEN - 21 NOVEMBER 3 2005: Yemen has the second highest percentage of prisoners housed in Guantanamo Bay. One of the reasons for this this is a long standing warrior culture which has existed since before the time of the Prophet Mohammed. This is depicted in this image of two local men stand on the hillside outside their ancient fortress-like city on top of a mountain in Shebam-Kawbaban. The men are traditionally dressed and are armed with AK-47's. Yemen has a long history of warrior culture which continues today. Owning and carrying a weapon is normal, especially outside of the capital city of Sana'a. The weapon is considered a symbol of male pride and prowess and is considered neccesary in these areas. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Guantanamo Prisoners Families

AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: War victim eight year old Abbas, is seen at the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010. Abbas was walking with his uncle in the Sa'ada region when his uncle stepped on a landmine and was blown to pieces. Shrapnel from the mine, ordinance from the war between Yemeni Government forces and the Al-Houthi Shiite group, sprayed into Abbas's chest and blinded him in one eye. Abbas's ten year old sister was also injured in the blast. They represent two of thousands of children at dire risk in this conflict. A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316 000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

HODEIDAH, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: An eight year old amputee Nigerian boy locked up in Hodeidah Central Prison, Hodeidah, Yemen, August 12, 2010. He is in prison with a man who claims to be his brother. They were captured by Yemeni authorities while trying to get to Saudi Arabia to seek work or to beg for funds. There is a possibility that this boy is a child trafficking victim who has been deliberately mamed in order to make him a more viable begging prospect in Saudi Arabia. He has subsequently been rescued from this prison by the joint efforts of Unicef and UNHCR, who have removed him to a safer environment while they investigate his case. He has already spent more than 13 months in this prison in the company of adult prisoners. This prison houses a majority of African illegal immigrants who have made their way by perilous land and boat journeys to Yemen from Nigeria, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. They are in Yemen in order to make their way to Saudi Arabia. Most attempt to walk to Saudi from their beach landing in Hodeidah and cross the Yemen/Saudi Border illegally in order to secure manual labour employment. The majority of the inmates of this prison have been caught and imprisoned in the process of this endevour. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: War affected Internally Displaced children living inamongst rural communities close to the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010. A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

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SANA'A, YEMEN - NOVEMBER 20 2005: Nasser Al Bahri photographed in his home in Sana'a, Yemen. Al Bahri is a former long serving body guard to Ossama Bin Laden and a former member of Al Qaeda. Al Bahri was a fervent Jihadi fighter for many years, supporting his muslim brothers in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Somalia, Chechnya and many other conflict zones. After a spell in prison, Al Bahri now preaches the word of the Koran as opposed to the word of the gun. He fears the naivety of young Jihadists and has been threatened by them for his change in attitude. He would like to see both sides in the current global conflict against terror come together to seek a peaceful resolution. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Guantanamo Prisoners Families

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SANA'A, YEMEN - NOVEMBER 3 2005: Guantanamo prisoner's wife Amat Al Saboor Ali Qassan at home in her bedroom in Yemen. She is holding the first letter she received from Salim after he was interned in Guantanamo. Of all the letters she has received from him she says this is the most special as it was the first time she knew what had become of him. Salim's wife and daughters are looked after by her brother who also takes care of his own family on less than $100 a month. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Guantanamo Prisoners Families

AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: Female Unicef Aid workers seen at the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010. A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

ADEN, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: Scenes of severely malnourished Yemeni children in the Therapeutic feeding center at the Al-Wahda teaching hospital, Aden, Yemen, August 11, 2010. Malnutrition is a chronic problem in Yemen, 58% of children under five are stunted as a result of lack of aequate nutrition, 15% are wasting and 46% are underweight. Poverty is a heavy contributor to these conditions. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KAJIADO, KENYA, FEBRUARY 2010: A Kenyan schoolgirl plays with a Somali schoolgirl inside a classroom in a muslim school in Kajiado, Kenya, 10 February 2010. The Somalis are rising across Kenya. Their war tempered tenacity and talent as traders has made them formidable businessmen and in large towns like Kajiado, the Somalis and their brand of Islam is dominant and growing. Somalis and their Kikuyu partners have acquired large tracts of land from naïve pastoralists who now find themselves squeezed into unsustainable pockets of grazing land. As a consequence many are forced into urban poverty. This guarantees the increasing domination of the Somalis who already have political representation in Nairobi. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images)

Northern Zambia, August 2003. Zambia enters its 6th year of severe drought. A starving farmers sits amongst the ruins of his failed crop. He is HIV+ and his malnutrition has greatly accelerated the decline of his immune system.

BUNGOMA, KENYA - 13 SEPTEMBER: Images of a laborer in the rice-fields of Dominion Farm, the largest private American investment in Kenya, September 13, 2007 in Bungoma, Kenya. The farm's owners are staunch Christians but unlike most evangelical movements who come to Africa they do not wish to provide traditional aid, they wish to uplift the people via sustainable, realistic business sense. The farm specialises in Fish breeding and massive Rice production and has resisted protest and corruption on their way to success. They believe in the business potential of Africa and Africans and express disapointment at the lack of American business investment in Africa. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

GAIBANDAH, BANGLADESH-AUGUST 2008: Vulnerable farmers on flood damaged islands work to clear rice fields damaged by annual floods which destroy crops and homes amongst the poor on a yearly basis, Gaibandah, Bangladesh, 2 August 2008. Bangladesh is one of the worst affected countries in terms of food security. The price of food staples have doubled in the last 5 months and civil unrest is a possibility in the near future. Rising world energy prices, one of the world's poorest populations, and a loss of government subsidies for food staples combined with the world's highest flood plain has meant that many people are down to one meal a day. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

DHAKA, BANGLADESH - JULY 2008: A young Rickshaw Puller eats his single meal of the day in an impoverished slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh on 31 July 2008. Bangladesh is one of the worst affected countries in terms of food security. Rising world energy prices, one of the world's poorest populations, a loss of government subsidies for food staples and subsequent price increases from merchant stockpiling has meant that many poor people are down to one meal a day. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

KURIGRAM, BANGLADESH-AUGUST 2008: Flood affected village men hack away the embankment left by the most recent flooding in the area where their village used to be, Kurigram, Northern Bangladesh, 2 August 2008. They are doing this on the orders of the local landowner who is using this earth for contruction in another area. These men are effectively further removing the only barrier between them and further flooding but desperately need the small amount they are paid so do the work anyway. The lack of a serious engineering works aimed at flood prevention in Bangladesh is behind the suffering of millions of impoverished rural people. Annual predicable floods bring misery to millions without any effective counter plan. A fatalistic nations chooses instead to move rather than try to combat the flooding through engineering ingenuity. Flooding, Poverty and lack of protected land ownership amongst the poor is driving a serious food crisis in Bangladesh. A male labourers makes around 90 US cents a day while a women makes around 50 US cents a day working in the fields. Extreme poverty and rising food prices couple with an oversupply of cheap labour has meant that many people can only afford to eat once a day. Many labourers sell their services up to a year ahead and have been caught out by rampant food prices which are beyond the reach of their wages. Bangladesh is one of the worst affected countries in terms of food security. The price of food staples have doubled in the last 5 months and civil unrest is a possibility in the near future. Rising world energy prices, one of the world's poorest populations, and a loss of government subsidies for food staples combined with the world's highest flood plain has meant that many people are down to one meal a day. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

DUS, OMO VALLEY, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Karo people in the Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

LORYRA, SOUTH OMO, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Dassanech people in the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

LORYRA, SOUTH OMO, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Dassanech people in the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

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BAGHDAD, IRAQ - 16 FEBRUARY 2005. First Segeant Troy Hawkins falls wounded to the ground during a firefight in the troubled Haifa street area of Baghdad. Sgt Hawkins was wounded in the leg and shoulder but continued to direct troop movement before walking out of the fire zone.The Iraqi National Guard members he was fighting alongside have been trained by U.S Coalition forces to work in this area which is a flashpoint for clashes. U.S forces are in the process of handing over complete authority to the Iraqi National Guard. Although still currently involved in the patrols, the U.S forces are phasing out their direct involvement in this kind of security operation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek) *** Local Caption *** Iraqi post-election discussion, Baghdad.

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NAJAF, IRAQ-MAY 2005: Hussam Hassan washes the body of 12 year old Ali Basem Karim who was killed in Basra when the wedding he was attending was attacked by extremist militias. The wedding was attacked because they were celebrating and that was not considered apporopriate by the militia group. Another child was wounded in the attack. *** Local Caption *** Assignment Iraq

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NAJAF, IRAQ - MAY 2004: Militia supporters of cleric Mugtada Al-Sadder guard the streets in Najaf. This group clashes on a daily basis with the coalition forces and tensions are high in the area. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES

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BAGHDAD, IRAQ - 16 FEBRUARY 2005: U.S forces and the Iraqi National Guard fight together during a firefight in the troubled Haifa street area of Baghdad. These National Guard members have been trained by U.S Coalition forces to work in this area which is a flashpoint for clashes between Sunni militants and Shiite residents. U.S forces are in the process of handing over complete authority to the Iraqi National Guard. Although still currently involved in the patrols, the U.S forces are phasing out their direct involvement in this kind of security operation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek) *** Local Caption *** Iraqi post-election discussion, Baghdad.

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BAGHDAD, IRAQ - 16 FEBRUARY 2005: U.S Army's First Cavalry, Task Force 1-9 First Segeant Troy Hawkins is tended by fellow soldiers after being wounded in the leg and the shoulder during a firefight in the troubled Haifa street area of Baghdad. Sgt Hawkins and his fellow U.S soldiers were fighting alongside Iraqi National Guard members who have been trained by U.S Coalition forces to work in this area which is a flashpoint for clashes. U.S forces are in the process of handing over complete authority to the Iraqi National Guard. Although still currently involved in the patrols, the U.S forces are phasing out their direct involvement in this kind of security operation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek) *** Local Caption *** Iraqi post-election discussion, Baghdad.

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TAJI, IRAQ - JUNE 17: New soldiers for the Iraqi army train at the Taji training facility. CMATT, the Coalition Military Assistance Training Team, intially undertook the training of these soldiers but now that responsibility is being carried out by Iraqi trainers forming the first Brigade dedicated to the training of Iraqis by Iraqis. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images) *** Local Caption *** Iraq Assignment

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BAGHDAD, IRAQ - 17 FEBRUARY 2005: Iraqi National Guard member Ali Nadim, 20, is rushed to hospital after being wounded by grenade attack during a firefight in the Haifa street area of Baghdad. These Iraqi National Guard members have been trained by U.S Coalition forces to work in this area which is a flashpoint for clashes. U.S forces are in the process of handing over complete authority to the Iraqi National Guard. Although still currently involved in the patrols, the U.S forces are phasing out their direct involvement in this kind of security operation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek) *** Local Caption *** Iraqi post-election Iraqi Nationa Army, Baghdad.

KABUL, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Scenes from a drugs bust conducted by the Afghan Anti-Narcotics unit assisted by American DEA agents who have been training these men for over 2 years, Kabul, Afghanistan, 18 April 2007. The images show a search scene and arrest with 2 suspects in custody. 6 kilos of processed heroin was confiscated in the raid. Afghanistan currently produces over 90% of the world's illegal opium and the industry accounts for over 45% of the countries annual GDP. A great deal of this production is based on communal poverty and a lack of alternatives for farmers combined with coercion from the opium cartels of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The event is filmed by CNN freelance crew Cameraman Richard Parry and producer Tresha Mabile. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

KABUL, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Scenes from a drugs bust conducted by the Afghan Anti-Narcotics unit assisted by American DEA agents who have been training these men for over 2 years, Kabul, Afghanistan, 18 April 2007. The images show a search scene and arrest with 2 suspects in custody. 6 kilos of processed heroin was confiscated in the raid. Afghanistan currently produces over 90% of the world's illegal opium and the industry accounts for over 45% of the countries annual GDP. A great deal of this production is based on communal poverty and a lack of alternatives for farmers combined with coercion from the opium cartels of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The event is filmed by CNN freelance crew Cameraman Richard Parry and producer Tresha Mabile. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

KABUL, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Scenes with drug addicts at an underfunded rehabilitation centre and at the place where they use drugs, Kabul Afghanistan, 16 April 2007. CNN Senior international correspondent Anderson Cooper interviews addicts for a show on the drug war taking place in Afghanistan today. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

JALALABAD, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Images from illegal opium producing poppy farms an hours travel outside of Jalalabad, Afghanistan, 19 April 2007. Afghanistan currently produces over 90% of the world's illegal opium and the industry accounts for over 45% of the countries annual GDP. A great deal of this production is based on communal poverty and a lack of alternatives for farmers combined with coercion from the opium cartels of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The event is filmed by CNN freelance crew Cameraman Richard Parry and producer Tresha Mabile. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

SUN VALLEY IDAHO-14 AUGUST 2006: : Amputee veteran Specialist Andew W. Soule, 25, looks across at the horse he will be riding from his elevated chair lift position. He is learning how to ride properly as part of a series of sports choices he made for a week of outdoor activity designed as part of his rehabilitation process. These images focus on a week in the outdoors with three disabled war wounded veterans from the Iraq, Afghanistan conflicts. Andy Soule, 25, is a specialist who was blown out os his vehicle by an IED in Afghanistan. Andy is a double above the knee amputee. Higher Ground is a program run by Sun Valley Adaptive sports in Kethum Idaho. They are an NGO looking to provide a sports based meaningful rehabiliation experience for disabled veterans. The program involved taking the men, all of whom are amputees of sorts, down the Main Salmon River on a 4 day river rafting trip and then offering them the opportunity afterwards to pursue futher sporting intersts such as climbing, parasailing, kayaking and horse-riding. The program also encourages disabled veterans to bring their wives on the program. It is aimed at a healthier and speedier recovery through outdoor recreation.

Sports Rehabilitation for US veterans - Category 5

SUN VALLEY, IDAHO - 8/14 AUGUST 2006: Specialist Andrew W. Soule, 25, takes his horse through a series of training poles in an arena in Sun Valley, Idaho . He is learning how to ride as part of a series of sports choices he made for a week of outdoor activity designed as part of his rehabilitation process. These images focus on a week in the outdoors with three disabled war wounded veterans from the Iraq, Afghanistan conflicts. Andy Soule, 25, is a specialist who was blown out os his vehicle by an IED in Afghanistan. Andy is a double above the knee amputee. Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.

Sports Rehabilitation for US veterans - Category 5

SALMON RIVER IDAHO - AUGUST 8/14 2006: Specialist Andrew Soule, 25, gets into his inflateable kayak at the beginning of the day on a 4 day river rafting trip on the Main Salmon River in Idaho. These images focus on a week outdoors with three disabled war wounded veterans from the Iraq, Afghanistan conflicts. Andy Soule, 25, is a specialist who was blown out of his vehicle by an IED in Afghanistan. Andy is a double above the knee amputee. Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.

Sports Rehabilitation for US veterans - category 5

SALMON RIVER, IDAHO - AUGUST 8/14 2006: Double amputee Specialist Andrew W. Soule, 25, paddles through rapids as part of a 4 day river rafting trip on the Main Salmon River in Idaho. These images focus on a week outdoors with three disabled war wounded veterans from the Iraq, Afghanistan conflicts. Andy Soule, 25, is a specialist who was blown out of his vehicle by an IED in Afghanistan. Andy is a double above the knee amputee. Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.

Sports Rehabilitation for US Veterans - category 5

Experimental sports rehabilitation for Veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan conflict. This series illustrates a white water rafting trip with 3 severely wounded multiple amputee veterans. It is their first time in the outdoors with their new bodies and is a showcase in resolve on the part of these men. On the trip they swam, rafted, kayaked and in one case learnt to horse ride. I spent 4 days on the trip with these men and then one day in Brooke Army Medical Centre in Texas examining the hospital rehabilitation exercise program. I include two images of a 98% burn victim who was in the gym attempting to exercise for the first time since he was attacked in Iraq over a year ago. I include these in the hope of showing how far these young men have come and what incredible hardships they have had to overcome. SALMON RIVER IDAHO - AUGUST 8/14 2006: Major Anthony L. Smith,39, and Specialist Andrew W. Soule, 25, race each other in a burst of exhuberance at the end of the day's rafting on the Main Salmon River. These images focus on a week outdoors with three disabled war wounded veterans from the Iraq, Afghanistan conflicts. Major Anthony Smith,39, was severely wounded in the hip in Iraq while on deployment. He is missing an arm, is recovering from 4 bullet wounds and has only partial use of his right leg and hip after being struck by an RPG. Andy Soule, 25, is a specialist who was blown out os his vehicle by an IED in Afghanistan. Andy is a double above the knee amputee. The swimming is part of a program run by Sun Valley Adaptive sports in Ketchum Idaho. They are an NGO looking to provide a sports based meaningful rehabiliation experience for disabled veterans. It is aimed at a healthier and speedier recovery through outdoor recreation. Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.

ZAMBIA-ZIMBABWE BORDER-APRIL 2003: A dying Aids patient is bathed for the final time by her mother and aunt. The girl passed away half an hour after this final gesture. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

SOWETO SOUTH AFRICA-MAY 2005: An Hiv+ women on anti-retrovirals does her yoga routine in the garden of her home in Soweto township. Four months prior to this she was unable to walk and considered a final stage case. The access to medication has made her life possible again. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES

RICHARDS BAY, SOUTH AFRICA-MAY 2004: A young aids orphan stands alone in a field after a church service. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

The Feminization of Aids, Kenya. Category 19

Meru, Kenya-28 November 2006: Elisabeth Mweru,28, coughs while feeding herself again for the first time in weeks as she recovers from severe tuberculosis. Elizabeth was found in an advanced stage of full blown Aids by a group of self-supporting HIV+ women in her village. She has been cared for by them to the point where she can now sit up and begin to feed herself. HIV rates in Kenya are now at 5 to 1 in terms of women to men, indicating a strong feminisation of the disease. As a result groups of Kenyan HIV+ women are banding together to offer each other education and support. photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for the Global Business Coalition against Aids.

Zimbabe Today: Mugabe's Victims

ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, 14 JUNE 2009: A man and women suffering from advanced Tuberculosis are taken to a clinic via ox-wagon in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe, 24 June 2009. It is likely that both are HIV positive. Transport costs alone to and from the hospital are beyond the means of most Zimbaweans in this failed state. As a result of food scarcity in the failed state, malnutrition plays a large role in the rapid decline of HIV+ Zimbabweans. 25% of Zimbabweans are estimated to be HIV positive but there is only one ARV dispensing facility in the capital Harare. Its costs around $20 for the blood work to get on the program, a sum well beyond the reach of most in a country of over 90% unemployment. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KIEV, UKRAINE, SEPTEMBER 2011: Scenes from the Tuberculosis Hospital in Kiev, Ukraine, 7 September 2011. Staff work under difficult conditions, with many patients who are drug addicts and criminals. There are also severe shortages in terms of funding for new equipment and security for the staff. Staff in the hospital have been attacked by patients, police are afraid of the disease these patients carry and have not acted to protect the nurses and doctors who risk their lives daily in the care of these patients. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

SOUTHERN SRI LANKA-NOVEMBER 2005: A Tsunami survivor sits and cries in the ruins of the house she used to share with her husband and two children. They were lost in the wave and she now lives in the ruins of the house trying to work out how to reclaim some part of her life. Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images

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GOMA, DEMOCRACTIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2008: Scenes photographed at Goma Central Prison on 27 March 2007. The scenes include images from the crowded courtyard and cells as well as images from a prison relegious praise group who are gathered in a cell enthusiastically praying, singing and praising God. The mural on the wall includes the crucifiction scene set against the volcanoes which are a hallmark for Goma. (Photo by Brent Stirton/call 347 386 0429.)

The Latinization of Baseball

Boca de Nigua, Dominican Republic 5 June 2005: One of the Met's hottest new prospects, Cuban defector Alay Solera practises his pitching at the Mets Academy in Dominican. He is waiting for his US visa to come through. Soler is already good enough for the major leagues and was paid an alleged signing fee of 2.8 million dollars for a three year contract. For most of the latin players baseball represents the only possibility of a better life.

The Latinization of Baseball

San Pedro de Macoris, Dominican Republic, 9 June 2005: A young foal crosses an old defunct baseball field after a rainstorm in San Pedro de Macoris. This legendary baseball city has produced more major league players than any other in the Dominican and is considered an important part of the heritage of Dominican baseball.

DAJABON DOMINICAN REPUBLIC- JUNE 7 2005: On a rural field near the Haitian border, young men wait to show their skills to scouts who represent the Major League teams. If selected the boys will be invited to attend one of the academies in the capital San Pedro where they will be tested to see if they have the neccesary qualities for the Major Leagues. On this day none of the boys were selected. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES

SHARJAH, UAE MAY 2005: Channana Ram, 60, an abandoned worker, washes out of a bucket in squallid conditions in a makeshift camp for abandoned workers in Sharjah, UAE. RAm worked for 25 years for East Coast Hamria Construction Company. At 60 he was scheduled to retire and be payed out a 25 year service settlement for his retirement back to India. Instead he and over 300 other workers were abandoned by their company over 18 months ago. In a protracted and prejudical court battle which is ongoing he was told he would be fortunate to receive even half of what he is owed. Channana has only been home 7 times in 25 years and has worked on many prominent building projects in Dubai. "If I don't get my payment, I will commit suicide, if they pay me what I am owed I will leave immediately. I have been cheated, me and my fellow workers, We completed our jobs on time and we deserve to get paid." Channana has only an expired passport and expired visa and has received no help from the Indian embassy in Dubai despite repeated requests. Workers in this camp all complained about the corruption endemic to the passport/visa process for labourers. "The government here in Dubai does not care about us, more than that, our own government does not care either." Recently there was trouble in Dubai as migrant labourers protested at harsh working conditions and pay disputes. The labourers work long shifts on the 24 hour sites and the labour camps are often over 2 hours away. The workers typically work a 12 hour shift in tough conditions. The majority of labourers come to Dubai from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. These workers operate in extreme temperatures in the desert climate, the majority earning under $200 a month. Many have to spend a third of that sum on food provided at the camps as part of their contract. Most sign recruitment contracts in their own countries which take them into debt for many years. Their passports are held by their employers once they reach the UAE and if the compa

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DHARMSALA, INDIA-DECEMBER 2003: Tibet's longest serving political prisoner Palden Gatso demonstrates how he was tortured by the Chinese prison guard using electric cattle prods. Gatso was imprisoned for peaceful protest. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES

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Kalahari Desert, South Africa-October 2006: Shoot with Kalahari San Bushmen in conjunction with Lion Television Productions for Discovery Atlas series. The shoot examines 2 days in the shooting schedule. The film attempts to portray aspects of traditional life for the Bushmen people. It examines a long hunt involving the 4 men and also a trance dance which is traditionally done to ensure a good hunt, certain weather etc. The dance helps to gird the Bushmen for the taxing exertion of the hunt. the 4 main protagonists were as follows: Hans Witboy, 23, he is the youngest of the 4. Buks Hendrik Kruiper, 50, he has an element of red to his loin cloth and very slitted eyes. Isak Kruiper, 48, is often the leader of the group. He wears an animal skin hat in the pictures. Abijong Kruiper, 63, is the oldest member and he stands often on one leg while waiting, resting one leg on the other. Pictures by Brent Stirton for the Discovery Channel.

MORRIS PLAINS, NEW JERSEY, 9 JULY 2015: Research scientists process human T cells inside the cell processing facility at the Morris Plains, New Jersey Novartis facility. This laboratory is where the T cells of cancer patients are processed and turned into super cells as part of a revolutionary new Gene therapy based cancer treatment Novartis is a part of.

KISUMU, KENYA, 18 JUNE 2015: A mother and child under mosquito netting, a major weapon in these rural areas in the fight against Malaria. A Malaria surveilance team from the Walter Read Project on Malaria undertakes daily case studies in the Nyanza District of Kisumu, Kenya. The surveilance team will typically weight the child, take down the family details and medical history, conduct a Rapid Test for malaria, draw a blood sample and continue to monitor that child for up to a 4 year period. Their work is invaluable in providing samples to monitor the path and progress and mutation of Malaria. Seven different teams work 5 days a week, visiting 5 households per day across the Nyanza district. Agnes Akoth Onyango, 57, is the Chief Nurse of the Walter Read Project, Kisumu, Kenya. Agnes is seen at the Kemri Insectology lab where mosquitos are specifically bred for Malaria research. Agnes has been a front line nurse in the fight against Malaria for over 31 years. She administers the staff at the Walter Read research facility and also has strong relations with the Kombewa District hospital. Agnes works with a number of field surveillance teams who monitor the population of the Nyanza province of Kenya, helping to maintain and update Walter Read’s case studies of over 40 years research into Malaria. Agnes supervises the teams, works with the laboratory staff and the local hospitals in keeping an up to date record on the progress of Malaria, staying one step ahead of the disease which kills over 5 million people annually. She also works with the Kemri group of disease research facilities in the Kisumu area. These provide a valuable database for the mutation of the Malaria parasite, helping to develop effective medication to combat the disease. Agnes has devoted her life to this theme, finding self-worth and tremendous satisfaction in her work. She is well know across her community and still finds time to go with surveillance teams to build case studies as well lecture on M

CHONGWE DISTRICT, ZAMBIA, 14 JANUARY 2014: Rural community health care worker Dismuss,44, pedals his bicycle ambulance on the way to the rural Chongwe community clinic, delivering a young boy suffering from Malaria. Dismuss lives a distance of 14 kilometers from the clinic and services over 500 households in his area. He adminsters rapid testing for Malaria and adminster Coartem anti-Malarials for both adults and children. Dismuss is a volunteer worker and receives no pay for this work. He has 9 children and his wife was recently diagnosed with Leukemia. Chongwe District, Zambia.

TROY, NEW YORK, 5 MAY 2014: Hillary Savoie takes her daughter outside for a bubble blowing session at their home in Troy, New york. Esme' Savoie, 3, suffers from a rare genetic disease know as PCDH19, a genetically mutated orphan disease of the kind which Novartis's N.I.B.R division feels they can learn a great deal, Troy, NY, 5 May 2014. Esme's parents Hillary and Andre Savoie have become experts in Esme's syndrome and are involved in fundraising for continued research and are a study case for Boston Childrens hospital and Novartis. PCDH19 Female Limited Epilepsy has been diagnosed in approximately 200 girls and women worldwide. PCDH19 FLE have been associated with the occurrence of epilepsy, a spectrum of developmental delays, and behavioral issues that occur almost exclusively in girls and women. Novartis is one of the few big pharmaceutical companies which is doing extensive research into diseases of the brain. This is particularly important now as autism numbers are increasing and it is estimated that as many as 1 in 50 children is currently affected by this syndrome in one from or another. Novartis has made remarkable strides in their developments and Ricardo Dolmetsch, head of research, feels confident of major breakthroughs in the next few years. PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) has a spectrum of symptoms. Almost all of the girls affected by PCDH19 mutations exhibit seizures of many types, but the most typical characteristic of PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) is the tendency of the seizures to cluster and interfere with breathing (causing cyanotic spells). Some of the girls affected with PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) have cognitive delays, much of the research indicates that about two-thirds of the girls have Intellectual Delay (ID) ranging from mild to moderate. Additionally, about 40% of the girls with PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) are on the autism spectrum. Many of those with PCDH19 also exhibit behavioral and psychological problems including aggression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and, in some cases,

CHINKO, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: New Rangers train to protect elephants in Chinko, a remote last haven for forest elephants in CAR. These rangers are up against experienced Sudanese poachers as well as local Seleka fighters who prey up on the elephants to finance their rebellion within CAR. The rangers are struggling to get weapons because of a UN weapons embargo which makes fighting Seleka and the Sudanese impossible for now. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: Members of Kawa Hunting Safaris skin and carry a Bongo Antelope deep inside the Chinko Reserve. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)

ALEXANDRA TOWNSHIP, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA - JUNE 7: The Alexandra township Crime Prevention Forum member's patrol confront scenes of domestic violence, June 7, 2008 in Alexandra township, South Africa. The patrol does not receive the backing they deserve from the local police, and often complain of police in-action in cases they initiate. Members of the C.P.F regularly risk their lives to protect the Alexandra community from crime and violence. They have confiscated 611 illegal guns in their history. Three were shot and killed last year alone in Alexandra. The Crime Prevention Forum is an idea that has been around since 1994, and is based on the fact that township people can expect little help from the police who cannot even come into some of these township communities without being attacked. As a result these CPF's conduct weekend patrols and act against rapists, burglars and other criminals. They do this with no financial assistance and very few weapons other than a whip "sjambok" with which to subdue the criminals and one handgun amongst 15 people on foot patrol. Once captured, the criminals are handed over to the police. Controversially, it has emerged that a key member of the Alexandra C.P.F is one of the individuals who, in a meeting in May 2008, called for the attacks on immigrants that have recently raged across South Africa. Alexandra was the genesis point for that most recent violence and it is disturbing that a member of the community anti-crime force should be involved in such a bloody affair. The most recent spate of xenophobic violence has left more than 70 people dead and over 30 000 displaced across South Africa. (photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)

The last year South Africa had prisoners on death row.

DAG ALLAL, TIMBUKTU, MALI, SEPTEMBER 2009: Tuareg men plant grass in the banks of the Niger River to grow a forage crop for their animals and for sale in the markets in the sedentary Tuareg village of Dag Allal in Mali on 11 September 2009. Unusual amongst Tuareg for their sedentary, non-nomadic existence, these Tuaregs remain in place all year and care for their animals by utilising agricultural techniques. They have received help from the Millenium Village Project which aims to empower local communities through education. They grow rice and forage grass in the nearby Niger river, using a canal and small pump to divert water into ricepaddies. Their leader, El Hadg Agali Ag Mohammoud, 70, explains that reasons of drought, rebellion, identity issues and a lack of union amongst the Tuareg caused this group to choose to remain in one place, "We live here all year, we take care of our animals by growing the grass that they wouldn't normally have in the hot summer months, other Tuareg don't always understand this, they think that this grass grows naturally. We sometimes have to prevent them taking it, we have to explain that we grow it for our animals and it is not free. Sometimes there is a confrontation as a result, this is not the traditional Tuareg way so we have to explain it to them. I think in the future there will be more Tuareg living this way. "(Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

BOLGATANGA, GHANA-JANUARY 2004: A man blinded by Trachoma, a preventable disease of the eyes conected to poor hygiene and lack of access to clean water. (PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/REPORTAGE BY GETTY IMAGES.)

THE MALDIVES, NOVEMBER, 2003: Fishermen raise empty nets on a coral atoll which was previously bountiful, The Maldives, November 6, 2003. Global warming has led to the death of the reef and as a result little fish remain. On top of this, the Maldives is the nation most threatened by rising water levels due to climate change. Island nations around the world are increasingly under threat from rising water levels. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

 ISHANGO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 6 MAY 2015: European Union commissioned instructors teach Virunga National Park rangers skills for concealment, bush craft, weapons and survival in their fight against paramilitary groups and poachers in the Park. Groups like the Hutu led FDLR and Ugandan ADF continue to make conservation problematic and dangerous inside Virunga, well known as one of the worlds most dangerous places to practice conservation. This group is a smaller subset of Rangers who will receive specialized training for a quick reaction force. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)
 Rhino Wars

This photo essay attempts to look at the environmental crisis caused by Asia’s appetite for Rhino horn. The horn is part of an ancient Asian medical system and today is seen as a curative for everything from Cancer to Kidney stones. Essentially keratin, a mild alkaline substance identical to fingernails, the horn is ground down in grinding bowls and mixed with water. This is then ingested by the sick and the wealthy of Vietnam and China, the imbiber hoping for miracle cures, when in fact science shows us it has a placebo effect at best. The use of horn dates back over 2000 years but the recent economic rise of countries like China and Vietnam and the subsequent wealth of the new upper class has had disastrous effects on the world’s remaining rhino population. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold and the poaching crisis is a perfect storm of that value playing out in the most corrupt wildlife systems with some of the poorest poachers as well as rhino ranchers who see millions of dollars in pushing to legalize the trade. South Africa is the main repository of the world’s remaining rhino, figure less than 20,000 animals. South Africa is on track to lose over 1600 animals this year, a figure that has risen every year since 2006 when less than 20 animals were killed for their horns. 
This essay examines the crisis along the Mozambique/South African border where daily incursions by armed poachers has resulted in a war which plays out inside Kruger National Park, the largest reserve for rhino in the world. We see the poachers with silenced weapons, the middle men arrested in sting operations by Mozambican authorities and the few rhino who dare to venture into Mozambique, protected by a tiny NGO who is the only effective organization in country. The average life expectancy for a Kruger rhino in Mozambique is 24 hours, a country where they were recently declared extinct. The essay goes on to show widows who have lost husbands and sons in this fight, range
 MOAMBA, MOZAMBIQUE, 19 APRIL 2016: Two rhino poachers, one 19, the other 28 years old, apprehended by an anti-poaching team in Mozambique close to Kruger National Park border. They are seen waiting to be processed in the local jail. After a three day chase they were caught in a roadblock and the rifle seized shortly thereafter. This was due to a co-ordinated effort between Kruger National Park in South Africa where the poachers intended to shoot rhino for their horn; and Sabi Game Park, a conservancy on the Mozabique side. The poachers were tracked and identified by their unique shoe pattern. They tried to say they had been on their way to buy cattle but had no money on their persons and the alleged cattle owner said he did not know anything about selling his cattle. A Czech CZ .458 hunting rifle was seized, complete with a professionally built silencer. Both men admitted their guilt and will be charged under new Mozambican law which states that possesion on the weapon and bullets indicates intent to poach rhino, this carries a maximum sentence of 12 years and/or $80,000.00. Their Toyota Hilux vehicle was also confiscated. The younger of the two poachers, 19, later led police to the homes of suspected weapons and transport suppliers, higher ups in the rhino poaching syndicates known as level 2's and 3's. Those men had fled by the time the police arrived but significant information was discovered in the form of identity documents, both real and forged, as well as banking account information. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic Magazine.)
 LIMPOPO, SOUTH AFRICA, 2 APRIL 2016: “Shoelaces on steroids.” That's how Saving the Survivors PR Spokesperson Suzanne Boswell Rudham described Tuesday's groundbreaking procedure using human abdominal surgery technology to stretch the wounded edges the gaping wound created by horn poachers who removed most of the face of the world's most famous rhino, “Hope.” The Saving the Survivors team member joined a team of top wildlife vets on a Limpopo plot of land, where they stitched the elastymers, imported from Canada, on to Hope's battered face. They are hoping that it will to pull the edges of the wound together and finally heal the massive wound, which happened when poachers hacked off almost all of her face last May. But the world-famous animal with the indomitable spirit has clung to life - and has become an ambassador for the conservation of her ever-threatened species, Johan Marais, a wildlife vet and founder of Saving the Survivors, told a small group of onlookers gathered around him and his team. In a procedure that lasted just over an hour, they inserted pulley systems in Hope’s skin to "crank the laces" to close the massive cavity on her face. In Hope's latest procedure - she has already had five major surgeries and other smaller ones - they used an abdominal re-approximation anchor system, imported from Canada by local distributors Surgitech. "Basically it's developed for people who've had stomach surgery where they can't close the wound," Rudham explained. "Whereas before they used it to stitch it and staple it, now this system... actually pulls in the tissue without destroying any cells." In the past year, 60% of Hope's face has healed, but she's not out of the woods yet, explains Marais. Hope’s gaping wound is constantly attacked by flies and maggots. "We're hoping to make that cavity a lot smaller and then we'll put a wound matrix over that with collagen for the cells to start growing together," adds Rudham. After the procedure, the bandaged rhi
 SABIE GAME PARK, MOZAMBIQUE, 9 APRIL 2016: A combined force of Sabie Game Park Rangers, Garda Frontier soldiers and Fauna Bravia soldiers arrest and detain Moses Chauque, a level 2 rhino poacher who arranges weapons and transport for rhino poachers. There are multiple arrest warrants for Chauque, both in Mozambique and South Africa. This arrest was put together with intelligence gathered by IAPF, the International Anti-Poaching Foundation, the only effective Anti-poaching group on the ground in Mozambique. Moses Chauque was identified in statements from two seperate groups of poachers who were arrested in Mozambique with CZ hunting rifles and rhino horn. Both groups made sworn statements the Chauque contracted them for rhino poaching in nearby Kruger National Park. There are also further warrants in South Africa for his alleged involvement in two murder cases. When Chauque was delivered into Police custody in Mouamba, Mozambique, the police apparently cheered that he had finally been caught. The case against him in Mozambique will now revolve around weapons charges and the statements against him made by the two groups of arrested rhino poachers. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 EZULU GAME FARM, GRAHAMSTOWN, SOUTH AFRICA, 15 MAY 2016: Four pairs of Cow and calf rhinos are captured and moved into transport for relocation to a more secure facility. This is the last of 27 Rhino that are being moved away from game farms in the Port Elizabeth/Grahamstown region where it is feared that security is inadequate to protect these rhino from poachers. 6 rhino have already been killed in the last 3 months and the professional manner in which they were poached has prompted owners to say that it is better for these rhino to leave their farms and go to a more secure facility. The rhinos will travel for 20 hours to their new location and will be sedated every three hours by a vet who will accompany them at all times. They will also be guarded by full time security for their journey and full time at their final location. It is a truism of rhino ownership these days that owners can often not afford the expense of full time security for these animals, such is the pressure from poachers and the value of their horn in Asia. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 BUFFALO DREAM RANCH, KLERKSDORP, SOUTH AFRICA, 24 MAY 2016:  A two-man security team deploys by helicopter at sunset for anti-poaching duties on the worlds largest Rhino breeding ranch. The teams are at work 24 hours a day and conduct security operations from rotating positions, observation points and on mobile patrols on foot, in vehicles and by helicopter.  John Hume has close to 1400 Rhino to protect on his property and they are constantly monitored by his vet Dr Michelle Otto and by Hume’s Security teams. Hume’s running costs are close to 5 million Rand a month, around $330, 000.00 per month. $200,000.00 of that is spent on security. Hume is a long time proponent of legalizing the Rhino horn trade by using humane dehorning and is one of the biggest influences in trying to get CITES to change their anti-trade stance. Hume is reputed to have more than 5 tons of rhino horn in secure locations. This would be worth around $40, 000, 000.00 on the Asian market at current prices. There are many supporters of the pro-trade agreement, with more than 1300 rhino likely to be poached per annum in this current crisis. Critics of trade state that legalizing horn trade would create loopholes that would exacerbate the killing of rhino. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)
 OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, KENYA:  A four man anti-poaching team permanently guards Northern White Rhino on Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, 13 July 2011. The Ol Pejeta Conservancy is an important “not-for-profit” wildlife conservancy in the Laikipia District of Kenya and the largest sanctuary for black rhinos in East Africa. It is also the home of 4 of the world's remaining 8 Northern White Rhino, the worlds most endangered animal. There has been an increase in poaching incidents on Ol Pejeta recently, in line with a massive worldwide increase in rhino poaching linked to the rise in the Asian middle class. Anti-poaching teams provide close protection to the rhino, with 24 hour observation over all rhino on Ol Pejeta and 24 hour armed guard protection over the 4 Northern White Rhino who are kept in their own Boma area. The team have developed extraordinary relationships with these Rhino, leaning on them, scratching them and displaying tremendous affection towards these most endangered of animals. Each of the men in these teams feels a genuine vocation towards the protection of these animals, something the rhino seem to sense, and this emerges on a daily basis as the men walk with the rhino through their day.
 SUNDARABANS, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 8 JANUARY 2016: Mahammad Ali Molla, 60, has been blind for the last 14 years. He goes for tea every day and his grandson accompanies him on the 2 kilometer walk to the local market. He also assists him as he drinks and eats when he is not at school. Mahammad developed a problem with his eyes when tree sap entered in them while working as an agricultural labourer. He could not access eye treatment and as his eyes were neglected he developed corneal ulcers. He sought medical help from local quacks who took his money but destroyed his one eye and damaged the other with their ill-advised treatment techniques. He received further surgery from Kolkata Medical college but they could not save his remaining vision. He spent 30 000 rupees on that trip to Kolkata and it is likely most of that money went to living away from his home while undergoing treatment as well as paying unscrupulous middle men. Mahammad is supported by his wife Samiran Molla, 55, who has had to shoulder the financial burden of raising their 5 children. They survive today with meagre fishing income and by her eating with one son and Mahammad eating with the other. It is likely Mahammad's blindness could have been prevented by access to qualified eye care but his remote location and lack of local facilities as well as his state of poverty prevented access to correct treatment. This story is not uncommon in the more remote parts of India where remote communities are encumbered by a lack of quality eye care at hand and poverty makes travel and care inaccesable. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 OMARURU, NAMIBIA, 5 November 2015: Gerd Gamanab, 67, is a completely sightless man hoping for a miracle at a blindness camp in Omaruru District hospital in Namibia. He lost his sight to 50 years of farm labour in the Namibian sun and dust, which destroyed both of his corneas. This kind of blindness is the result of living in remote locations with prolonged exposure to fierce elements and no eye care anywhere nearby. A lack of education as to what was happening to his eyes also allowed this to occur. 
These camps are held all over Namibia and cater to sections of the population that do not receive regular eye care, mostly as a result of poverty. The applicant are screened and if the diagnosis is a mature cataract, they are selected as candidates for a simple operation which in fifteen minutes lends signicant sight to their world. The cataract is removed by a surgical vacuum and a new lens in inserted. Bandages are removed the next day and in most cases a real improvement in vision is the result. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
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 WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 17 SEPTEMBER 2014: Bharat Mallik, 7, is a boy who suffers from Cataract and Glaucoma blindness and comes from a severely impoverished Bengali family in India. He is seen at Vivekananda Mission Hospital, an eye hospital which specializes in treating the poor for little or no money. Bharat’s father is a drunk and his labourer mother struggles to make ends meet. As a result he has not been treated for his eye issues. A teacher network at school notified a local social worker and as a result of his efforts Bharat is scheduled for surgery at Vivekananda Ashram hospital a few hours away. Most of these villagers are so poor that transport to a hospital is not possible. As a result many children go permanently blind when, like Bharat, a simple operation could restore their sight. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 WEST BENGAL, INDIA 28 OCTOBER 2013: Anita and Sonia Singh explore the beginning of sight as they walk through bullrushes close to their village after undergoing eye surgery. Both Anita, 5, and her older sister Sonia, 12, are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness and they will need to excercise their new eyes for at least six months before their sight approximates normal. The surgery to cure cataract blindness is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.
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 WEST BENGAL, INDIA 21 OCTOBER 2013: Blind girls Sonia, 12, and Anita Singh, 5, accompany their parents during a rainstorm while they work in the fields of their rural Indian village. Both sisters are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness. They must accompany their parents everywhere as they cannot be left alone without risk. The surgery to cure this is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.
 CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2013: Rodrigue Katembo, Central Section Warden, Virunga National Park, leads a combined team of ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army on an patrol into an area known to have a FDLR rebel presence, Chondo, Virunga, DRC. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. Since they fled into the DRC and the park after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 190 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers are winning this battle but at a heavy price. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage)
 NZARA, SOUTH SUDAN, 17 NOVEMBER 2014: Michael Oryem, 29, is a former Lord's Resistance Army fighter who was involved in the poaching of Ivory in Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a former base of operations for the LRA and a major source of financing for the notorious group. Oryem was abducted by the group when he was 9 and lived with them for over 17 years in the wild. He was made a commander in the group at the age of 12. The LRA is infamous for the killing and abduction of thousands of civilians across multiple countries. He defected and is now a member of the Ugandan Army, UPDF, African Union force hunting the LRA. he is seen with 2 of six pieces of ivory which he hid and then led the Ugandan forces to inside the border region of the Central African Republic. He claims that the LRA killed many elephants in Garamba and he was ordered by Joseph Kony, the groups notorious leader, to bring the ivory to him in Darfur, South Sudan. Ivory is now a real means of financing for the LRA, it is used for both food and weapons supplies and is traded to the Sudanese Army who transports it north to Khartoum. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)
 GULU, UGANDA, 21 NOVEMBER 2014: Margret Acino, 32, was attacked by members of the Lord’s Resistance Army when she was 23 and 9 months pregnant. Her lips, ears and nose were cut off and her breasts were hacked by a group of LRA men. Margret and a small group of villagers had gone to the fields for crops when they found themselves surrounded by the infamous rebels. They were taken quickly to an area outside of Gulu where the men accused them of informing on the LRA to the Ugandan Army. Two men and a child were then immediately killed with the hoes they had been carrying for farming. The commander of the rebels accused them again, confronting Margaret and accusing her of being the wife of a soldier. Her husband was in fact a simple farmer. The LRA commander then killed another women in front of her. He said this must be the truth or how could she be so confident in talking with them. He then said he would teach her not to inform ever again. He ordered his men, mostly young teenagers, to produce a razor blade. They hesitated and the commander then threatened his own men, one of them produced a razor blade and they were ordered to cut off Margret’s lips, ears and nose, a practice that was becoming an LRA trademark at the time. When the men were finished, Margret was released and told to run. She passed out from loss of blood shortly thereafter and when she revived she found a man with a bicycle who took her to an IDP. She was in surgery for 2 days, her baby was born via an emergency caesarian and Margret then lapsed into a coma for 5 days. She has had 7 surgeries since to try to repair her ravaged face. The LRA commander who ordered this brutality subsequently defected and was given amnesty. Margaret saw him at a World Vision camp and became hysterical, telling people he was the one behind her tragedy. He was moved from the camp but not prosecuted. Margret has subsequently forgiven him, saying that it is easier to live with things this way. Her husband was less suppo
 RUMANGABO, NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 28 NOVEMBER 2015: The funeral of ICCN Ranger Theodore Mbusa Matofali, 27, after a tragic car accident which left him dead from head injuries. Over 150 ICCN rangers have died in the course of their duties in Virunga National Park, most of those deaths have resulted from conflict. The Rangers have a dangerous job, often dealing with rebel movements, paramilitary Mai-Mai groups as well as the Congolese army all in the name of conservation in this contentious region of the DRC. (photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 LULIMBI, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, FEBRUARY 2012: Congolese Conservation Rangers deploy young bloodhounds for the first time in Virunga to investigate the corpse of a recently killed male elephant in Lulimbi, Eastern DRC, February 29, 2012. The elephant is suspected to have been killed by FDLR, a Rwandan Hutu led rebel group that has lived inside Virunga since 1995 when it fled Tutsi reprisals for the Rwandan Genocide. FDLR has consistently killed elephants in Virunga in order finance its campaign of violence with the proceeds from Ivory sales. FDLR often work in collaboration with the Congolese army, another element inside Virunga that makes conservation very difficult. The young dogs reacted with horror at the elephant corpse, their noses are estimated to be 3 million times more sensitive than a humans.
 MBOKI, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, 25 NOVEMBER 2014: Soldiers on patrol from the African Union Ugandan Armed forces, UPDF, base at Mboki, Central African Republic. The Ugandan contingent based here are focused on the aprehension of the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA, the notorious rebel group led by Joseph Kony which has terrorized citizens of Uganda, C.A.R, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo for the last 4 decades. Soldiers are seen crossing a river, a technique they have perfected with ropes despite the fact that many of the men cannot swim. Captain (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)
 LOME', TOGO, 29 JANUARY 2014: Containers with 4 tons of illegal ivory confiscated in January 2014 by the Togolese customs office from its new deep water port, Lome,' Togo. This ivory has been directly linked through DNA evidence to the elephant massacre that occured in Dzanga Bai, Central African Republic in 2013. That massacre was perpetrated by Seleka rebels who climbed the observation towers at the famous forest elephant gathering place in Dzanga Bai and gunned down the elephants with automatic weapons. The Seleka rebels would have used the proceeds from this ivory sale for some of the violence which has plagued C.A.R over much of 2013 and 2014. Togo has been viewed as a new opportunity by ivory smugglers with its new deep water port. Customs officers with new Container scanning technology have made the efforts of these smugglers more difficult. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)
 ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD: Rangers from a horse patrol group exhibit their riding skills as they return to base at Zakouma National Park, Chad. The horse patrols are the old guard of Zakouma's rangers and have seen a good deal of conflict in their time in the park. Zakouma lost nearly 75% of its elephants in the decade before 2011 due to raids by Janajaweed and Sudanese poachers, many of them from the Sudanese military. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a big supporter of the elephant of Zakouma and of its elephants. The herds here until recently used to be as large as 1000 animals all moving together, severe poaching over the last decade saw that number decimated and now only around 20% of the number remains. Since 2011 however there has been control over poaching and there has not been a single elephant poached in the last 2 years. The credit for that lies with these rangers and the new management of the park.
 VICHUMBI, LAKE EDWARD, DR CONGO, 27 JULY 2013: Mai Mai thugs who tried to rob 5 fisherman had the tables turned on them when the fisherman knocked their single AK47 into the water and subdued them, Vuchimbi, Lake Edward, DR Congo, 27 July 2013. The thieves were handed over to a combined ICCN (Congolese Conservation force) and FARDC (Congolese Army force) troop and searched and arrested. The villagers depend on the lake for water, washing, the staple food of fishing, the transport of people and goods. Plans by Socco oil company to drill for oil in Lake Edward currently imperil all of those things. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 GARAMBA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRACTIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 12 NOVEMBER 2014: ICCN Ranger officer Mambo inside the ivory storage locker at Garamba National Park in the DR Congo. This ivory is the prize that notorious rebel group the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA, comes looking for in Garamba. Killing elephants for their ivory is an order direct from the LRA's sociopathic leader Joseph Kony, a man wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against Humanity. Rangers in Garamba find themselves up against a heavily armed LRA in their battle to save Garamba's elephant. As pressure has increased on Kony, the LRA has turned to Ivory as one means of sustaining themselves in their decades long bush war against the civilians of Uganda, Congo and the South Sudan/CAR region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic magazine.)
 BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)
 GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 22 JANUARY 2015: Benadete Kahindo, 32, seen with her eldest daughter Gift and 3 of her seven children. Benadete's husband was ICCN ranger Hassan Sebuyori, 34. In 2012 Hassan was targeted, killed and beheaded by FDLR, a notorious Hutu led rebel group operating inside Virunga National Park since the time of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. Benadete was forced to flee from her home after continued FDLR threats and a year later her eldest daughter Gift was raped at age 14 by the M23 rebels, a group who claimed to be opposed to FDLR. Gift gave birth to a child after the rape. Benadete's husband Hassan had been effective in stopping FDLR's bushmeat trade inside Virunga. They were angry with him for this and ambushed the ICCN vehicle in which he was travelling. FDLR dragged a wounded Hassan away with them and his headless body was discovered not far from the ambush location. His head was not recovered and his body was left as a warning to the other rangers. Benadete and her children survive on funds from the Virunga Widows fund, something dependant on donations and not guaranteed for the future. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 TRANSKEI COAST, SOUTH AFRICA-NOVEMBER 2003: Xhosa boys undergoing the circumcision ceremony walk back to their huts at the end of the day. Every Xhosa male must undergo this ceremony which begins with a unanethatised circumcision and then explores a month long oral history of the Xhosa people. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.
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 KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Maria, a drug addict and sex worker, entertains a client in a room she rents in a house from an old lady, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. Maria uses drugs on a daily basis and sees many men every week but remains HIV negative. She claims she need the money to support herself, her habit and her 9 year old daughter. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)
 KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Maria, a drug addict and sex worker, entertains a client in a room she rents in a house from an old lady, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. Maria uses drugs on a daily basis and sees many men every week but remains HIV negative. She claims she need the money to support herself, her habit and her 9 year old daughter. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)
 RIFIJI, SELOUS, TANZANIA, 4 MARCH 2013: Yusuf Shabani Difika, 41, lost both his arms to a lion attack on a fishing trip on the border of Selous National Park, Tanzania. The lion attacked Yusuf and his arms were shredded beyond recovery as he attempted to fend off the animal. He says the lion bit him multiple times on his arms, exposing his bones and ripping off the flesh. Yusuf was rescued by village friends who drove the lion off with sticks and machettes. Yusuf was rushed to a local clinic and then transported to a hospital where doctors had no choice but to amputate what was left of his arms. Yusuf has two children, aged 5 and 3, he has lost the ability to work and is entirely reliant on his father, his uncle and his cousins as well as the kindness of his village for his survival. He says the hardest thing is that he cannot clean himself or go to the bathroom without assistance. His uncle bathes him on a regular basis and his father and cousins help him to dress, eat and drink. Lion attacks on the rural people who farm close to Selous National Park are not uncommon. There is a degree of hypocrisy to the West's expectation that these people should live with lions as if there is no danger. They do not benefit from the wildlife in Selous and they live in danger as there are no fences to the Park and the range of the lions often extends outside of the park. They are especially in vulnerable during the harvest period. Wild Bush pigs are attracted by young maize and rice crops and so people sleep in their fields in order to protect their crops. Rural people are especially exposed to lion attacks at this time. The lions are attracted to the bushpig presence, the pigs are hard to catch and the human beings are close at hand, often completely vulnerable and easy to subdue.
 NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: Professional hunters fool around with a dead captive bred lioness after a bow hunt on a game farm close to the South Africa/Botswana border region, October 19, 2012. Two systems for the hunts exist in two different provinces of South Africa. One practice sees the lion released for a minimal 96 hours into a 3000-hectare area before the hunt can begin. The other practice sees the lion released for 3 months into a minimum 3000-hectare area before it can be hunted. The lioness in these images was released 96 hours ahead of the hunt into the area. Recent global research points to the fact that hunting and breeding programs are necessary components for the survival of lions into the future. These practices go some way towards lessening pressure on wild lion populations as well as preserving a strong lion DNA base and a future repository for lions for areas where they have been decimated. The hunting industry is also a strong employer in Africa, with over 1.4 million square kilometers given over to hunting concessions. This is a landmass more than 20% higher than that given over to Wildlife Conservation areas. More than 18000 hunters come to Africa every year and the money high-end dangerous game hunting brings to the continent goes some way to preserving the land mass set aside for hunting.
 NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: A captive bred lion is skinned after a hunt close to the South Africa/Botswana border, October 19, 2012. Two systems for the hunts exist in two different provinces of South Africa. One practice sees the lion released for a minimal 96 hours into a 3000-hectare area before the hunt can begin. The other practice sees the lion released for 3 months into a minimum 3000-hectare area before it can be hunted. The lioness in these images was released 96 hours ahead of the hunt into the area. Recent global research points to the fact that hunting and breeding programs are necessary components for the survival of lions into the future. These practices go some way towards lessening pressure on wild lion populations as well as preserving a strong lion DNA base and a future repository for lions for areas where they have been decimated. The hunting industry is also a strong employer in Africa, with over 1.4 million square kilometers given over to hunting concessions. This is a landmass more than 20% higher than that given over to Wildlife Conservation areas. More than 18000 hunters come to Africa every year and the money high-end dangerous game hunting brings to the continent goes some way to preserving the land mass set aside for hunting.
 NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: Over 40 carcasses from lion hunts hang up to dry in a vehicle yard on a farm in the North West Province, South Africa, October 19, 2012. These bones come from lions killed in legal hunts. The dealer requires a local permit for Nature Conservation South Africa as well as a Cites export permit for this trade. There is a large Asian market for these bones, which are crushed and used in Asian medicines and also in Lion Wine. Lion bone has become more popular in Asian culture as a result of the increasing rarity of the Tiger. Tiger parts have long been a part of Asian traditional medicine, but with less than 3000 tigers left in the wild, lion bone is becoming increasingly popular. Conservationists argue that this increasing demand for lion bone will severely impact wild lion populations. Hunters and breeders argue that they can easily meet the demand and that a legal trade means wild lion populations as well as tiger populations will be saved as captive breeding and hunting of those lions can meet the demand. Prices for a lion skeleton vary, from $1200 to $10, 000. South Africa is the lion hunting and breeding capital of the world, with an estimated 500 plus lions hunted every year and the largest breeding programs in the world.
 MPIMBWE, WESTERN TANZANIA, OCTOBER 2012: Lion Dancers from the Sakuma tribe perform the story of their lion killing outside a village in rural Mpimbwe, Western Tanzania, October 27, 2012. Lion dancers are men who have killed a lion in defense of their cattle or their village. They are a deeply superstitious people who believe that once they have killed a lion they have to become a lion dancer for 3 to 5 years to avoid going mad. They spend a year or longer preparing with the local witchdoctor and then go from village to village seeing their relatives and dancing while collecting tribute for their bravery. In a time when lion are very scarce in the region, this practice is actively discouraged by conservation organizations and it is slowly dying out. It is illegal in Tanzania. When the dancers appear in the villages, they are often praised and given money, goats and even sometimes a small cow. It is therefore something that some young men aspire to, even going as far as to venture into the local Katavi National Park in pursuit of a lion.
 AMBOSELLI ECOSYSTEM, KENYA, 25 FEBRUARY 2013: Images of "Lion Guardians" using telemetry to locate lions in the ecosystem outside of Amboselli National Park, Kenya, 25 February 2013. Lion guardians is a conservation program which recruits leading Maasai men, many of whom are former lion killers, into a system which monitors lions, confers a sense of ownership and pride in them and forms a Maasai vanguard which seeks to prevent other Maasai from hunting lions in retribution for cattle killing. Retaliatory and traditional spearing by Maasai warriors is the greatest threat to the survival of lions in Maasailand. the Lion Guardians program is unique in employing the traditional enemy of lions to conserve rather than kill them. The Guardians monitor spoor, use telemetry devices to track collared lions, and collect dna samples for analysis. They have also named all the lions in their area and recently produced identity cards which further reinforce notions of lion identity within Maasai communities.
 OSAKA, JAPAN, 19 OCTOBER 2014: Sensei Fumon Tanaka, 73, Samurai master and descendent of a long line of Samurai warriors in Japan. He is seen at a temple complex in Osaka, Japan. Sensei Tanaka is somewhat controversial amongst the pursuants of the Samurai arts in that he embraces the media and has appeared in films, documentaries and commercials all showcasing his Samurai martial arts skills. This is controversial in Samurai culture as many pursuants believe in secrecy and humbleness and not in ostentatious display.
 SHIMIZU KU, SHIZUOKA CITY, TOKYO, 16 OCTOBER 2014: Advanced students practise sword skills in the dojo of Master Sensei Yoshimitsu (Kagehiro) Katsuse, a master of all 18 of the Samurai arts. This dojo dates back to the 16th century and is one of very few pure Samurai dojos that survive today.
 KONO, SIERRA LEONE-OCTOBER 2003: A 12 year old former "bush-wife" sex-slave of the rebel group the R.U.F.  This girl was taken from her village at 10 years old and forced into sexual servitude by the rebels. When she attempted to escape they used battery acid to burn off her breast as an example to the other slaves. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.
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 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Claysun Benally with his horse in Cameron, Arizona. Claysun is a strong believer in traditional Navajo values and along with his father keeps several horses on their property in Flagstaff. The Navajo have a long relationship with the wild horse, a relationship characterized by gentleness and agreement rather than breaking the horses spirti to the will of man. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
 WINDOW ROCK, ARIZONA, 11 APRIL 2014: Senior police officer in the Navajo police Dana Dean Tome arrests a suspect on the streets of WindowRock, Arizona. This man was later found to be innocent. No alcohol is allowed on the reservation and it is one of the many obstacles faced by the understaffed, underfinanced Navajo Police. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro.)
 PINON, NAVAJO NATION, ARIZONA, 5 APRIL 2014: Children play on a horse training farm close to the economically depressed area of Pinon, Arizona.  (Photo by Brent Stirton/Rpeortage for Le Figaro.)
 CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Jones Benally, a famous medicine man, dances the Navajo Hoop dance in a small canyon in the badlands of Cameron, Arizona. The hoop dance is traditionally performed at the end of a grueling nine day ceremony and is a form of storytelling dance representing various animals, symbols and storytelling elements, all representing the never ending circle of life for the Navajo. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)
 TETE, MOZAMBIQUE, NOVEMBER 2013: Victor Pirez, 28, performs demining operations in the Chinzunga hills close to Cabora Bassa, Mozambique, 18 November 2013. Victor has been a demined for 5 years and says that his grandfather was killed by a landmine in this same region while walking to his farm. Victor's team cleared 15 landmines on this day and detonated them as usual before they left for the day. Victor is also the paramedic for his team and carries a major trauma kit with him. Victor makes $260 a month doing this job, considered a good salary in Mozambique. The HALO deminers in this area are dealing with landmines laid in the 1970's by the Portugese military who were attempting to defend the vital Cabora Bassa Hydro-electric dam, a strategic target for the Frelimo rebels at the time. Today, over 40 years later, these mines still maim and kill the local populace and prevent them utilizing vital agricultural land. This scene was photographed at demining operations close to the HALO Demining camp in the mountains of Chinzunga. Mozambique was one of the most heavily landmined countries in the war, both from its 11 year long War of Libertation as well as its conflicts with both South Africa and Rhodesia for sheltering both the ANC and Mugabe's Zanla freedom fighters. Halo has cleared over 22,700 anti personnel mines and reclaimed of 500, 000 square meters of land for the local populace. HALO runs both mechinical and manual operations. Mozambique is pushing hard to meet its donor obligations to be land-mine free by the end of 2014, under the mandate of the Ottawa convention on the land mine.
 BARRIO CHIUIJO, WEST OF CHIMOIO, MOZAMBIQUE/ZIMBABWE BORDER, 19 NOVEMBER 2013: Bonafacio Mazin, 57, works his vegetable field with perfect balance despite losing one of his legs in 1987 to a landmine laid by Rhodesian forces in the seventies, Mozambique/Zimbabwe Border, West Chimoio, 19 November 2013. Bonafacio was walking home from farm work in Zimbabwe when the incident occured. Mozambique had very few jobs at the time and many people were killed in their way in and out of Zimbabwe by these landmines. "As a man, this is very bad, I cannot find a job, I work hard on the farm but I cannot do enough work. This landmine has reduced me to a beggar." This region is one of the most densely landmined in the world, effectively cutting off 50% of all arable land for these villages. The landmines were laid by the Rhodesean Military to protect against ZANLA freedom fighters in Rhodesia's war of liberation. They have been in place since the early 1970's and Norweigan Peoples Agency have been demining the area for some time. They hope to finish by the end of 2014 but that may be optimistic given the recent discovery of new minefields and resurgent violence from opposition party RENAMO. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for the ICRC.)
 MOTOLLA CITY, MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE, 25 NOVEMBER 2013: Double amputee Jose Sabonete,54, a former FRELIMO soldier, is seen bathing at his impoverished home in Motolla City, Maputo, Mozambique, 25 November 2013. Jose lost his legs to a fragmentation landmine while serving as a soldier in the war. He and his 5 children exist today on a $100 government pension but he receives no other help for his condition. He is seen bathing in the toilet area of his home. The amputees in this image are all a result of landmine blasts. These veterans receive a $50 pension every month from government but rely on the kindness of their extended families to survive. Most have only brokendown prosthetics in dire need of maintenance as well as crutches that are on their last legs. Most of these men were injured by landmines in their fight against RENAMO, who were eventually defeated by FRELIMO who today makes up the leading party in the Mozambique government.
 MOTOLLA CITY, MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE, 24 NOVEMBER 2013: Jose Magleso Nalabo, 48, was blinded while soldiering for FRELIMO during Mozambique's brutal civile war, he is seen outside his squatter housing in abandoned accomodation in Motolla City, Maputo, Mozambique, 24 November 2013. Jose was blinded when the soldier in front of him trod on a fragmentation landmine, killing himself and blinding Jose. 25 families live in these accomodations, the majority are former FRELIMO fighters from the Mozambique civil war. Most of those are amputees as a result of landmine blasts. These veterans receive a $50 pension every month from government but rely on the kindness of their extended families to survive. Most have only brokendown prosthetics in dire need of maintenance as well as crutches that are on their last legs. Most of these men were injured by landmines in their fight against RENAMO, who were eventually defeated by FRELIMO who today makes up the leading party in the Mozambique government.
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 AKHAND JYOTI EYE HOSPITAL, PATNA, BIHAR, INDIA, 10 SEPTEMBER 2014: Eye surgery patients recover in a mass ward at Akhand Jyoti Eye Hospital, the third largest eye hospital in India. This hospital performed over 65 000 eye surgeries last year, often averaging over 400 surgeries a day. They cater to the poorest of the poor in the poorest state in India. Over 2 thirds of their surgeries are free for the poor.
 WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 15 SEPTEMBER 2014: A social worker looks after a young impoverished child who has just had surgery to correct congenital cataracts. This social worker has moved the boy into his own home for this delicate recovery process as the boy's father is a drunk and his labourer mother struggles to make ends meet. As a result he has not been treated for his cataracts. A teacher network at school notified this social worker and as a result of his efforts the child has succesful surgery at an Ashram hospital a few hours away. Most of these villagers are so poor that transport to a hospital is not possible, let alone surgery.
 TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted in the desert on a training excercise close to a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain.  Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic)
 TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain.  Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.
 TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain.  Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.
 TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement for Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and natural resource ownership, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain.  Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 30 odd Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. In retaliation the Niger army attacked the school in July 2008 by attack helicopter and killed 17 MNJ rebels. The children at the school have since been moved to a safer location near Arlit Niger. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
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 ZAGADO, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of MNJ breakaway faction leader and Tuareg Rissa ag Boula, a former  Niger Army commander and Minister of Tourism photographed in Zagado, Nothern Niger, 7 April 2009. Boula is now on the run himself from the French as well as Niger forces. He has gone back to his own people and joined the Tuareg rebellion although it is under some scepticism from other MNJ leaders. He has a reputation as a fierce fighter and is seen with his sniper rifle. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 SANDTON, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 8 DECEMBER 2013: People pay tribute to the life of Nelson Mandela at Mandela Square in Sandton City shopping center, Johannesburg, 8 December, 2013. There has been a massive response the death of Nelson Mandela across South Africa, as people remember an icon of the country. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 QUNU, EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA, 14 DECEMBER 2013: A man waits for the Nelson Mandela funeral procession to pass, Qunu, South Africa, 14 December 2014. An icon of democracy, Mandela was buried at his family home in Qunu after passing away on the 5th December 2013. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA, 10 DECEMBER 2013: Mandela supporters wait for public transport in the rain on their way to FNB stadium for a day of comemoration for Nelson Mandela, the iconic Freedom Fighter of the ANC, Soweto, South Africa, 10 December 2013. Mandela died on the 5th of December 2013. 
(Photo by Brent Stirton/© 2013 Cable News Network. A Time Warner Company. All Rights Reserved.)
 HILLBROW, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 7 DECEMBER 2013: African Christians say passionate prayers on a hilltop overlooking Johannesburg, 7 December 2013. There are prayers all over the country at this time as people mourn the loss of Nelson Mandela, an icon of freedom and democracy who passed away on the 5 of December 2013 after a long struggle with illness. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)
 THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Mahouts clean an elephant in a private home enclosure, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant belongs to Sundar Menon, a fuel supply magnate who runs Sungroup international. His is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant walks past two nervous women on its way to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)
 VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 12, plays by herself on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few proper burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. Kumkum will first have her hands repaired to offer some use and then her face and body will be attended to. It will require at least a year of surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something she would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.
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 VARANASI, INDIA, 8 SEPTEMBER 2014: Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh operates on burn victim Ragini Kumari, 10, who was badly burnt by a Kerosene fire when she was 2 years old, she is one of over 6 million people burnt in India every year. Ragini has suffered constrictions of her neck and shoulders and lived in a permanently cramped and restricted postion ever since. Her family is deeply impoverished and like millions of India's poor she has been unable to secure the necessary surgery. Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh, found Ragini at a burns camp he held in her area and has arranged for her to attend his clinic where he performs free surgery for the poorest of the poor of India. She is seen at her home before surgery and on her journey to his clinic in Varnasi, India. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MIKENO, EASTERN DR CONGO, 8 APRIL 2009: Local villagers help to evacuate the body of a female mountain gorilla who has been shot by poachers. It is believed that her baby had been taken by these poachers so they could try to sell it to the highest bidder. Mountain Gorillas are extremely rare, with just over 700 in the world today. They exist in the Virunga ranges of DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. The group in DR Congo numbers just over 300 and their region is occupied by the M23 rebel group, formerly known as CNDP. Despite the conflict in the region, the gorillas remain, a fragile, threatened group that also have poachers and human encroachment to fear. The Senkwekwe Center is the only facility for critically endangered orphan mountain gorillas in the world. It is located in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, about 50 kilometers from the border town of Goma. Each gorilla at the center has suffered a traumatic poaching experience, injuries from snares, and/or losing their mothers in brutal killings. These baby gorillas were kept in horrifying conditions, close to death, until their rescue by Congolese Conservation forces. Now they are looked after by a dedicated group of conservation ranger caretakers. The center is located in a large forested enclosure with a night house and veterinarian facilities. The caretakers are with the newest orphan Ihirwe 24/7. They sleep in the same room, often holding the new orphan like fathers would a child. They interact like a family, the gorillas displaying extraordinary behavior towards their caretakers indicative of a loving and trusting relationship. In early 2009, the rangers and warden of Virunga National Park re-gained control of the gorillas sector of Virunga National Park following the takeover by General Nkunda and his CNDP rebel army. At that time awareness was raised about two young orphan mountain gorillas, Ndeze and Ndakasi, and their living conditions in a small compound in the city of Goma, full of poll
 RUMANGABO, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: Andre, 39, a self described "gorilla mother" looks after 4 orphaned gorillas who were rescued from various horrific circumstances and brought into care by the staff of Virunga National Park, DRC, 2 March 2012. Andre thinks of these gorillas as his own children and even describes bringing his children to see them as showing them their brothers and sisters. Andre lives with the Gorillas 24/7 with the exception of a few days off to visit his own family. Andre is an ICCN Congolese Conservation ranger and has cared for orphaned and rescued gorillas since 2003.
 RUMANGABO, VIRUNGA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 6 AUGUST 20013: Images from the Senkekwe Orphan Gorilla project as caretakers interact in the early morning with a new orphan mountain gorilla Ihirwe at ICCN headquarters, Rumangabo, DRC, 6 August 2013. It is suspected that this orphan was taken by soldiers who probably killed the mother to get the baby. When they were unable to sell it, the orphan was abandoned and the conservation rangers heard and rescued it. Wounds from a rope were evident on its chest and back, it is slowly recovering now as it lives full time with caretakers who also sleep in the enclosure with the orphan. There are a number of other orphans at the center who will be introduced to the new baby once it has been through quarantine and is accustomed to its new surroundings.
 RUMANGABO, VIRUNGA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 7 AUGUST 20013: New Mountan gorilla orphan Ihirwe clings to her caretaker at Senkekwe Mountain Gorilla Orphanage at ICCN headquarters, Rumangabo, DRC, 7 August 2013. It is suspected that this orphan was taken by soldiers who probably killed the mother to get the baby. When they were unable to sell it, the orphan was abandoned and the conservation rangers heard and rescued it. Wounds from a rope were evident on its chest and back, it is slowly recovering now as it lives full time with caretakers who also sleep in the enclosure with the orphan. There are a number of other orphans at the center who will be introduced to the new baby once it has been through quarantine and is accustomed to its new surroundings. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)
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 RUMANGABO, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: Andre, 39, a self described "gorilla mother" looks after 4 orphaned gorillas who were rescued from various horrific circumstances and brought into care by the staff of Virunga National Park, DRC, 2 March 2012. Andre thinks of these gorillas as his own children and even describes bringing his children to see them as showing them their brothers and sisters. Andre lives with the Gorillas 24/7 with the exception of a few days off to visit his own family. Andre is an ICCN Congolese Conservation ranger and has cared for orphaned and rescued gorillas since 2003. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)
 AMBOSELI, KENYA, MAY 2011: Undercover Kenya Wildlife Services Ranger detusk a bull elephant killed by a spear  in the Amboseli ecosystem in the shadow of Amboseli, Kenya, May 29, 2011. The elephant was killed by a single spear stroke close to the spine which penetrated deeply enough to cause massive internal bleeding. It is not known whether this was a poaching attempt or whether this was a case of human elephant conflict with the animal in the crops of local Masaai. The animal was detusked and the ivory sent to the KWS HQ in Amboseli National Park. KWS has the mandate to protect wildlife in Kenya but lack the manpower and resources. Organisations like Big Life are the private sector arm of KWS in the 2 million acre Amboseli ecosystem, working alongside them to supply manpower, vehicles, funding, information networks and aircraft to practise effective conservation in the region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 AMBOSELI, KENYA, MAY 2011: Undercover Kenya Wildlife Services Ranger detusk a bull elephant killed by a spear  in the Amboseli ecosystem in the shadow of Amboseli, Kenya, May 29, 2011. The elephant was killed by a single spear stroke close to the spine which penetrated deeply enough to cause massive internal bleeding. It is not known whether this was a poaching attempt or whether this was a case of human elephant conflict with the animal in the crops of local Masaai. The animal was detusked and the ivory sent to the KWS HQ in Amboseli National Park. KWS has the mandate to protect wildlife in Kenya but lack the manpower and resources. Organisations like Big Life are the private sector arm of KWS in the 2 million acre Amboseli ecosystem, working alongside them to supply manpower, vehicles, funding, information networks and aircraft to practise effective conservation in the region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012:  ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army capture illegal fisherman, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. Many of these fisherman are involved in this activity due to poverty, others are there to supply the rebel FDLR group with food. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. The fish stocks in the lake are just beginning to recover from the war, thousands of hippos were slaughtered to feed militia groups and this devastated fish stocks. This delicate recovery is what the ICCN rangers are trying to protect. This will allow a viable and sustainable fishing industry to be generated at Lake Edward, for the benefit of all.
Since the FDLR fled into Virunga after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)
 BOUBA NDJIDA NATIONAL PARK, NORTH CAMEROON, APRIL 2012: The largest mass killing of elephants in recent history took place at Bouba Ndjida National Park in North Cameroon close to the Chad and Central African Republic Borders from January through March 2012. Eye witnesses have so far located 340 carcasses, the ivory poachers themselves told local villagers they have killed over 650 elephants in their hunt for Ivory over the 500 000 hectare region. There has yet to be a proper aerial and ground survey of the dead elephants and the rainy season will make that difficult. The Poachers, numbering over 100 men, were mounted on horseback, led by 6 light skinned North Sudanese men and armed with RPG's, grenades, Light Machine Guns and AK47's. They were in two main groups, with a number of reconnaisance units of 4 men locating the elephants then bringing in a larger force to kill big groups. Intelligence indicates that many of the hunters came from Chad and were led by these Sudanese men. These facts have emerged from a number of eye witness acccounts, mainly by French professional hunters who saw the horsman in the Park and local hunting concessions. They had the appearence and attitude of Janjaweed fighters from the South Sudan Darfur and Chadian conflicts and were disciplined, unafraid, arrogant and extremely efficient hunters. The elephants were herded together by teams of 4 to 8 riders who then decimated them with AK47 fire, killing all the elephants they could find, including babies with no ivory. Groups as large as 53 have been gunned down together, with sections as large as 14 elephants lying within touching distance of each other. These horseman came into the area over the Chadian border, evidence of early carcasses suggests that they may have been in the park as early as October 2011. The main force began their hunt in earnest from January through to approximately 8 March 2012. It is believed there was collaboration with local poachers in this hunt as well as an as
 MANYANI, TSAVO, KENYA, JULY 2011: The burning of 5 tons of trafficked Ivory recovered from a seizure in Singapore in 2002, Manyani, Tsavo, Kenya, 20 July 2011. The ivory burnt here was originally from Malawi and Zambia, 5 tons of the original 6.4 tons were burnt and the remainder will supposedly be sent back to the 2 countries of origin, Malawi and Zambia. It was burnt in Kenya under the auspices of the LATF, the Lusaka Task Force, a group of affiliated countries who are supposed to form a common front against wildlife crime in Africa. The ivory burning is regarded with some cynicism from conservation quarters, no Kenyan ivory was added to the pyre, despite stocks in excess of 65 tons and their appropriation of the PR value of this event. The Kenyans response is to say that the disposal of public assets is a parlimentary affair, with due process of the law. The minimum time it would take for this is 3 months, more than enough time for Kenya to have participated if it so chose. Wildlife crime in Kenya still remains a perceived minor crime, with a maximum fine of only $430 for the killing of an elephant for its tusks. In conservation circles this illustrates a lack of comittment on the part of the KWS to truly stamp out the illegal ivory trade within Kenya. The overwhelming perception is that KWS appropriated this event, with minimum participation from the other LATF countries, and no credit was given to the Environmental Impact Agency despite the fact that it was their intelligence operation which resulted in the seizure in the first place. KWS also attempted to charge all foreign media a fee of $700 to attend the burn, despite them being invited guests to the burning and an indispensable source of publicity for Kenya's supposed anti-ivory trade stance. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic.)
 SURIN, THAILAND, NOVEMBER 2011: Luang Poo Bru Ba Dhammamunee, head abbot of Wat Suan Paa Phutthasatharn Supraditme thee Temple, photographed in Surin Elephant Village in Surin, Thailand, November 9th, 2011. The monk buys his Ivory carvings of Bhudist icons for resale purposes to his followers. He commented openly on the presence in Thailand of illegally imported African ivory and advised on how to get it into Thailand past customs authorities. He also spoke of how senior memember of the Thai parliment are behind the illegal industry. He spoke enthusiastically of business opportunities if we could get him illegal African ivory, despite his public relations campaign as a carer of elephant in Thailand. The Thai legal system has many loopholes as a result of the domestic ivory situation and Thailand is suspected of being a major transit country for illegal African ivory as a result. The sale of religious ivory icons is a big part of the domestic trade while illegal ivory and elephant goods from both Thailand and Africa regularly make their way to China. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 BEIJING, CHINA, NOVEMBER 2011: Scenes from China National Arts and Crafts Corporation - Ivory Carving factory, Beijing, China, November 17. Started in 2009 after China's big African Ivory purchase, this is supposedly the world's largest Ivory carving facility, employing more than 20 carvers and carving an alleged 750 kg of raw ivory annually. The director of the factory stated that the factory was started as a State initiative against the demise of the Ivory carving industry. State owned, it is a clear indication of the Chinese government's investment into the future of the Ivory carving trade. This factory also carves a ton of Mammoth Ivory every year. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)
 KIEV, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: A prisoner n the last stages of full-blown Aids who has been rushed to the Kiev Aids Center from prison receives compassionate care from a doctor while chained to the bed, The Kiev Aids Center in Kiev, Ukraine, 25 August 2011.  This facility is one of two in Ukriane and deals with many drug addicts and other difficult Aids infected people. There are strict rules and conditions in the wards which staff claim are neccesary to protect them from aggressive, manic patients. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 POLTAVA, UKRAINE,  AUGUST 2011: Scenes inside Poltava Tuberculosis clinic, a facility with insufficent resources which is the only facility for Tuberculosis patients in Poltava, Ukraine, 26 August 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KHARKOV, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: An HIV+ addict who has lost his lower jawbone to the corrosive effects of "Krokodil," a deadly new Ephedrine based Amphetamine drug photographed in a small apartment in a housing project in Kharkov, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. This drug originated in Russia and has quickly moved to Ukraine. It has a corrosive effect on the human body, eating away at the flesh of needle entry points and corroding bones in the body. Mass unemployment and perceived government apathy mean that many young people turn to drugs to escape the fatalism of their lives. As a result many are infected with HIV through needle use and unprotected sex. Ukraine is the most Aids infected nation in Europe.
 KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: HIV + drug addict Sacha bathes his mother every day in their small apartment in Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 31 August 2011. He takes care of her, washing her clothes, feeding her and makes sure she is cared for. Sacha is worried as he moves into full blown Aids that there will be no-one to look after his elderly mother. The reason his case is so worriesome is because there have been no new admissions allowed to the list of Anti Retro-Viral therapy recipients for those people living with full blown Aids in Ukraine since the end of 2010. Sacha is not on that list and is inelegible for treatment as a result. Nine months later in September 2011 all those people who have become critically ill but are not on the old list of ART recipients are living under a death sentence as their immune systems collapse. There is a new Government in Ukraine and the Ministry of Health controls all ART (Anti-RetroViral treatment,) medicine. As this business is put out to tender to the various pharmaceutical companies, a series of ignorances, bribes and corrupt practises hinder this vital service from coming into being in time to provide life-saving ART therapy to those who are dying without it. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)
 KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Addicts undergo sleep therapy during the drug detox program at Psycho Neurological Dispensary, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 31 August 2011. This program has good success in getting patients back to a pysiological level where they can receive counselling for their addictions. (photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 POLTAVA, UKRAINE - AUGUST 12 2005: Tanya, 29, a sex-worker and drug user who is HIV+. She has an eleven year old son and lives with 5 other sex workers in a small apartment in a poor neighbourhood. She used to weigh 100 kilograms but has wasted away to nothing. She has severe septicemia on her legs and a rampant addiction. Tanya tells that sometimes in the past wealthy men would seek her out for sex as part of a bizarre "Russian roulette with Aids" scenario, where they would have unprotected sex and dice with the odds of contracting HIV. Tanya died one month after this photograph was taken. Ukraine has the highest HIV rates in Europe today.
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 HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Pham, 32, a man born without eyes due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)
 Klerksdorp, South Africa, 25 March 2011: A man holds up a large Rhino horn in the African bush, the horn has just been removed from a White Rhino in order to save it from poaching, Klerksdorp, South Africa, 25 March 2011. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold on the international market. 100 grams of Rhino horn in Vietnam sells for $2500 to locals and over $8500 to foreign buyers, these are the prices consistently offered to our investigative team in meetings with 5 seperate dealers across the country. The demand for Rhino horn is now fueled by a newly wealthy Asian middle and upper class who can now afford the substance which was previously only the province of the wealthy. The horn is used overwhelmingly as an anti-fever, anti-toxin medication, with thousands of years of cultural belief behind the practise. This is despite the fact that Rhino horn is now an illegal substance across Asia. South Africa alone has lost more than 400 Rhino to illegal poaching incidents in 2011, to say nothing of those lost to legal hunting. There are less than 16000 rhino left in the world and at this compounded rate the Rhino is racing to extinction.
 SAVE' VALLEY CONSERVANCY, MASVINGA, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of a Black Rhino Bull that has been shot 4 times by poachers and had the stump of its horn removed, Save' Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe, April 23, 2011. This Rhino had already been de-horned by a vet in order to deincentivize poachers on the property but the poachers shot him anyway and brutally removed the stump of horn that remained. He was left for dead but was found wandering through the bush approximately 4 days after the incident, his face bleeding and screw-worm breeding in the wound. A decision was made to keep the animal alive rather than put him down and heavy doses of anti-biotics were administered. This Rhino died from his wounds one week after this photo was taken. Save' Valley Conservancy has lost a total of 66 Rhino to Poachers since 2002, including 10 in 2011. Rhino game ranchers in Zimbabwe speak of a number of issues when it comes to protecting their animals in Zimbabwe. There are issues of politics which affect the number of tourists that visit, this has been very low since 2000. Despite the fact that the Rhino actually belong to the state, private ranchers are asked to hire government Rangers from the State at considerable expense in order to protect them. This makes the economics of raising Rhino very difficult. Issues of security are difficult as it is hard to procure automatic weapons from a paranoid government and prosecution for the shooting of poachers can be very biased towards the locals. There is a perception on the part of government that training of Rangers is paramilitary and thus a threat.
 TUGELA PRIVATE GAME RESERVE, COLENSO, NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, NOVEMBER 2010: Images of a female rhino who 4 months ago survived a brutal dehorning by poachers who used a chainsaw to remove her horns and a large section of bone in this area of her skull, Natal, South Africa, November 9, 2010. The poachers surveyed the area by helicopter, mapped out the movements of the Rhino and the Guards and then darted the animal and hacked of the horn with a chainsaw. In an act of callous brutality they left the animal alive when they left with her horns. This Rhino was consequently found the next day wandering around in unimaginable pain. She also had a young 4 week old calf who was seperated in the incident and subsequently died of starvation and dehydration. The female adult miraculously survived the dehorning and with some supervision has gone on to join up with a male bull who accompanies her and helps her to survive.
 HOEDSPRUIT, SOUTH AFRICA, APRIL 2011: A White Rhino snared and killed for its horns 5 days before on Selati private game reserve in the Hoedspruit area of South Africa, April 9 2011. This animal was one of two to die this way in a two day period. Rhino killing has now become opportunistic in Africa with many poachers who previously would only snare smaller animals trying to take advantage of the Asian market for Rhino horn. The pursuit of rhino horn has moved beyond the realm of professional hunters into a much larger circle with links to organized crime.
 iMFOLOZI GAME RESERVE, NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 2011: Images of a White Rhino mother and calf in the landscape of iMfolozi Game Reserve in Natal, South Africa, May 1, 2011. Hluwhluwe iMfolozi Game Reserve is the worlds largest repository of Rhino, with an estimated 2300 rhino in total, a majority of which are White with a large contingent of Black Rhino. This terrain is considered to be representative of how Rhino have lived on Earth for thousands of years. With over 400 Rhino killed for their horn in 2011 in South Africa alone, the species is racing towards extinction because of the insatiable appetite for medicinal Rhino horn amongst the new Asian elites.
 VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of newly formed IAPF, The International Anti-Poaching Foundation, leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rhino protection for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. Mander has used his own money to start the organization. Rangers in Zimbabwe have little access to automatic weapons and good training and are struggling to contain rampant Rhino horn poaching across the country. Zimbabwe has significant Black Rhino numbers, of which there are now less than 3500 left in the world today.
 KLERKSDORP, SOUTH AFRICA, MARCH 2011: A White Rhino cow is de-horned as a precautionary anti-poaching measure on a game farm outside of Klerksdorp, South Africa, March 25 2011. The Vet's assistant is seen holding the horns for an identity picture while the Vet does a final check on the animal. Rhino Poaching has reached epedemic proportions in South Africa, with 334 killed in 2010 and over 400 killed in 2011. Many game farmers are increasingly turning to de-horning their animals as a protective measure against poaching. A 2 year study in Zimbabwe on the effects of de-horning has revealed no negative repercussions to the animal, and has seen less animals killed through fighting and horn damage. A large horn grows back after 5 years to its full size without trauma to the animal and thus can be seen as a renewable, sustainable resource for the Asian markets if legalized. At this time the only legal means to obtain a horn in South Africa is through a permitted hunt with a member of the conservation authority present. This means that the animal has to die before the horn is available. Statistics on poaching prove that the lack of access to legal horn has seen poaching become common practise and the price of Rhino horn has reached an all time high, surpassing that of gold. The counter argument to de-horning for profit is that it will lead to an interference in the natural world and an abuse of the resource in terms of animal treatment. Most Vets across South Africa have adopted de-horning as a neccesary anti-poaching technique to save the animals from being killed for their horn. On average a de-horning takes an experienced vet no more than 25 minutes to do from start to finish and the animal goes straight back to feeding with no visible sign of trauma afterwards. A standard 8 cms of stump is left behind, ensuring no actual tissue is ever damaged on the Rhino. The horns once taken are fitted with micro-chips, individually permitted and in most cases stored in bank vaults
 OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, KENYA, JULY 2011:  A four man anti-poaching team permanently guards a Northern White Rhino on Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, 13 July 2011. The Ol Pejeta Conservancy is an important “not-for-profit” wildlife conservancy in the Laikipia District of Kenya and the largest sanctuary for black rhinos in East Africa. It is also the home of 4 of the world's remaining 8 Northern White Rhino, the worlds most endangered animal. There has been an increase in poaching incidents on Ol Pejeta recently, in line with a massive worldwide increase in rhino poaching linked to the rise in the Asian middle class. Anti-poaching teams provide close protection to the rhino, with 24 hour observation over all rhino on Ol Pejeta and 24 hour armed guard protection over the 4 Northern White Rhino who are kept in their own Boma area. The team have developed extraordinary relationships with these Rhino, leaning on them, scratching them and displaying tremendous affection towards these most endangered of animals. Each of the men in these teams feels a genuine vocation towards the protection of these animals, something the rhino seem to sense, and this emerges on a daily basis as the men walk with the rhino through their day.
 Baoloc, Vietnam, 6 October 2011: A wealthy Vietnamese woman sits and grinds Rhino horn for her personal consumption in a roadside café in Baoloc, Vietnam. The dealer who sold her the horn sits next to her. Rhino Horn is an illegal substance in Vietnam yet both the woman and her dealer have no fear of the police, grinding the horn in a café in full view of the street. The dealer states that he pays $1500 a month to the right people and they can carry on with impunity. The woman says that it has cured her Kidney Stones and now she takes it daily for her general health. Rhino horn is generally used as a fever reducing agent and for the removal of toxins across Vietnam, the biggest market for horn today. Rhino horn has even been held up as a cure for Cancer by a senior Minister in the Vietnamese government. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold on the international market. 100 grams of Rhino horn in Vietnam sells for $2500 to locals and over $8500 to foreign buyers, these were the prices consistently offered to our investigative team in meetings with 5 separate dealers across the country in October 2011. The demand for Rhino horn is now fueled by a newly wealthy Asian middle and upper class that can afford the substance which was previously only for the wealthy. The price is further affected by the controlling influence of organized crime. The horn is used overwhelmingly as an anti-fever, anti-toxins medication, with thousands of years of cultural belief behind the practice. This is despite the fact that Rhino horn is now an illegal substance around the world. South Africa alone has lost more than 400 Rhino to illegal poaching incidents in 2011, to say nothing of those lost to legal hunting. There are less than 16000 rhino left in the world and at this compounded rate of killing, the Rhino is racing to extinction.
 BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)
 BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)
 BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)
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 RWINDI, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DRC, MARCH 2012: A combined ICCN conservation Ranger force and FARDC Congolese Army soldiers patrol both the road and inland in the Virunga National Park at Rwindi, DRC, March 8 2012. This reconnaisance patrol was conducted because of an FDLR rebel hijacking which occured on the road 2 days earlier but protecting the civilians who travel on the road through the park is now the mandate of the Rangers, a job which saw 9 Rangers killed last year. The Ranger camp has been attacked by in recent times by both FDLR, the Rwandan Hutu Genocidaires living illegally in Virunga as well as CNDP, a rebel break away faction of the Congolese army.  Rwindi remains a harcore flashpoint for contacts between FDLR and Rangers on patrol in the Park. 9 Rangers were killed in Rwindi in 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportge for GEO magazine.)
 CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: A combined team of ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army patrol an area known to have a FDLR rebel presence, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. Since they fled into the DRC and the park after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)
 CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012:  ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army capture illegal fisherman, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. Many of these fisherman are involved in this activity due to poverty, others are there to supply the rebel FDLR group with food. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. The fish stocks in the lake are just beginning to recover from the war, thousands of hippos were slaughtered to feed militia groups and this devastated fish stocks. This delicate recovery is what the ICCN rangers are trying to protect. This will allow a viable and sustainable fishing industry to be generated at Lake Edward, for the benefit of all.
Since the FDLR fled into Virunga after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)
 KIBATI, CLOSE TO GOMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK,NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-23 FEBRUARY 2008: ICCN Rangers conduct a raiding patrol into an area of illegal Charcoal production. They arrested a number of mules, poor people from displaced communities who are being used by the real powers behind Charcoal production in the area. These players include members of the Congolese military, the FDLR Interhamwe rebels and big businessmen in Goma. The ICCN Rangers were shot at by FDLR as they were completing their mission. This is an area known to be under their influence. ICCN Advance Force rangers at the Kibati Station are conducting roadblocks and vehicle searches for illegal charcoal in Virunga National Park. They are being assisted by members of the Congolese military police who are looking to stamp out their own military's involment in the illegal charcoal industry. The ICCN Ranger's job is complicated by the large number of Congolese military travelling on many of the vehicles and also by the fact that the Charcoal producers are increasingly turning to military vehicles as their means of transport as the Rangers until today had no rights to search vehicles of the Congolese Army. There is complicity between bad elements of the Congolese military, the rebel FDLR Interhamwe militias in the Charcoal industry, rumoured to be worth around 30 million dollars a year in the Goma region of DRC. Rwanda recently banned the production of charcoal which has led to increased prices and demand. The ranger's job is further complicated by the fact that the area is desperately poor and people have a hard time accepting this ban on one of the very few opportunities they feel they have to actually make some money. (Photo by Brent Stirton. ) For verification phone Rob Muir +243 997251960 in Goma.
 ISHANGO RANGER STATION, NORTHERN SECTOR, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, NORTH KIVU, RUWENZORI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-27 FEBRUARY 2008: ICCN Ranger Kambale Kalibumba was killed today by a rogue FARDC Congolese soldier who allegedly had a fallout with his commander over a disciplinary issue and left the base on a killing spree. The soldier left the army base and walked into the park. He encountered a local doctor on a motorbike and demanded the motorbike. When the doctor refused the soldier shot him multiple times. The Soldier rode on and the next person he encountered was ICCN Ranger Kambale Kalibumba. The Ranger was walking with a small girl at the time, the daughter of a friend. The soldier allegedly beckoned the Ranger over as he knew the Ranger would discover the dead doctor and raise the alarm. The soldier then shot the Ranger 5 times at close range. The girl fled into the bushes and raised the alarm. At the time the Ranger was in the park on the way to the Ishango post with rations for the patrol. More than 100 rangers have died in the last ten years as a result of their work in Virunga National Park. These pictures depict the dead rangers at the local Red Cross clinic in the village and the body being delivered to the Ishango Ranger Station to be driven to Mutsora Ranger station, the headquarters for the Northern Sector region. (Photo by Brent Stirton. ) For verification phone Rob Muir at the Frankfurt Zoological Society +243 997251960 in Goma and Emanuel De Merode at Wildlife Direct on +254 721344504 or Brent Stirton at +44 7795 060 715 or +1 347 386 0429.)
 KIBATI, CLOSE TO GOMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK,NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-23 FEBRUARY 2008: Daily scenes at Kibati ICCN Rangers station. ICCN Advance Force rangers at the Kibati Station are conducting roadblocks and vehicle searches for illegal charcoal in Virunga National Park. They are being assisted by members of the Congolese military police who are looking to stamp out their own military's involment in the illegal charcoal industry. The ICCN Ranger's job is complicated by the large number of Congolese military travelling on many of the vehicles and also by the fact that the Charcoal producers are increasingly turning to military vehicles as their means of transport as the Rangers until today had no rights to search vehicles of the Congolese Army. There is complicity between bad elements of the Congolese military, the rebel FDLR Interhamwe militias in the Charcoal industry, rumoured to be worth around 30 million dollars a year in the Goma region of DRC. Rwanda recently banned the production of charcoal which has led to increased prices and demand. The ranger's job is further complicated by the fact that the area is desperately poor and people have a hard time accepting this ban on one of the very few opportunities they feel they have to actually make some money. (Photo by Brent Stirton. ) For verification phone Rob Muir +243 997251960 in Goma.
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 TASSILI 'N AJJER, SOUTHERN ALGERIA, APRIL 2009: Images of famed tourist site and traditional Tuareg land, Tassili 'n Ajjer, in the south of Algeria, 02 May 2009. (photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic Magazine.)
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 TIMBUKTU REGION, MALI, 21 SEPTEMBER 2009: Tuareg Nomads end the Ramadan fast in the desert about 50 kilometers outside of Timbuktu with prayer and dancing, Timbuktu Region, Mali, September 21 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 INGAL, NIGER, OCTOBER 2009: Scenes at a Baptism in a Tuareg Nomad camp, Ingal Region, Niger, 11 October 2009. Tuareg Baptism is very simple, three names are discussed by elders and then straws are drawn to choose the final name. The women perform a ritual of walking around the tent in a line with the leading woman brandishing two knives to symbolically cut away misfortune from the future of the child. The women then dance and sing and play the drums while men prepare goat mead and drink tea and discuss things while people visit from the surrounding nomad camps. Tuareg Nomads have two traditional priorities, their animals and access to water. This group has moved to this region at this time to enjoy the remaining good grassland of the rainy season and will soon move again to be close to a good water source. The nomads survive on a diet of millet and camel milk which is occasionally supplemented by goat meat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 INGAL, NIGER, OCTOBER 2009: Two young Tuareg women have their hair dressed by other Tuareg women inside a traditional nomad tent at a Tuareg Nomad camp, Ingal Region, Niger, 11 October 2009. Tuareg Nomads have two traditional priorities, their animals and access to water. This group has moved to this region at this time to enjoy the remaining good grassland of the rainy season and will soon move again to be close to a good water source. The nomads survive on a diet of millet and camel milk which is occasionally supplemented by goat meat. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 DAG ALLAL, TIMBUKTU, MALI,  SEPTEMBER 2009: Tuareg men plant grass in the banks of the Niger River to grow a forage crop for their animals and for sale in the markets in the sedentary Tuareg village of Dag Allal in Mali on 11 September 2009. This group is very unusual amongst Tuareg for their sedentary, non-nomadic existence. These traditional nomadic people now remain in place all year round and care for their animals by utilizing agricultural techniques. Global warming, Uranium mining exploration and armed rebellion have destroyed most of their traditional nomadic grazing so to survive these Tuaregs now grow rice and forage grass in the nearby Niger river, using a canal and small pump to divert water into ricepaddies. Their leader, El Hadg Agali Ag Mohammoud, 70, explains that reasons of drought, rebellion, identity issues and a lack of union amongst the Tuareg caused this group to choose to remain in one place, "We live here all year, we take care of our animals by growing the grass that they wouldn't normally have in the hot summer months, other Tuareg don't always understand this, they think that this grass grows naturally. We sometimes have to prevent them taking it, we have to explain that we grow it for our animals and it is not free. Sometimes there is a confrontation as a result, this is not the traditional Tuareg way so we have to explain it to them. I think in the future there will be more Tuareg living this way.
 MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: Widows of SLDF leadership as well as from the civilian population photographed in an area notorious for conflict in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 11, 2011. This is a ongoing land conflict, the latest round instigated by in 2006 by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide up and resettle for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)
 MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: A 72 year old female victim of violence in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 8, 2011. The woman had her ear cut off as an intimidation technique by the SLDF. This is a conflict instigated by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide into small plots for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)
 MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: Hevron Masike,40, a farmer who was shot by militia men of the SLDF in 2008 in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 9, 2011. Hevron got up late at night to relieve himself and ran into a SLDF militia group out on an intimidation campaign. They shot him 3 times and then opened fire on his home, killing his wife and young son. Hevron survived but lost all his cattle and has been incapacitated ever since. He has steel plates in his let and a catheter through which he has to urinate. He cannot afford the twice monthly hospital check-ups and is likely to succumb to infection. He has no family to support him. This is a conflict instigated by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide into small plots for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage
 MT ELGON, KENYA, JUNE 2011: A Mt Elgon man with mental issues as a result of being a victim of violence from both sides in the tumultous Mt Elgon region of Kenya, a place of severe land clashes between the Sobot Land Defence Force and Kenyan Armed Forces, June 8, 2011. This man had his ear cut off as an intimidation technique by the SLDF rebel movement. Soon thereafter he was brutally beaten by the Kenyan Army as part of their campaign to stamp out the SLDF through intimidating the local population into giving up any knowledge they might have of the movement. He has not recovered from those experiences three years later. This is a conflict instigated by local men who formed the SLDF militia in order to protect land which the government wanted to divide into small plots for redistribution, thus threatening long established land ownership and protocols in the area. The SLDF used extreme violence as both a recruitment tool and an intimidation technique on local residents who did not want to support their movement. The Kenyan army then came in and overcompensated, both the SLDF and the Kenyan Army and Police inflicted severe casualties on the residents of Mt Elgon, with torture, rape and multiple killings a feature of the conflict through 2007 and 2008. Over 300 disapearences of Mt Elgon residents took place, with bodies dumpted in remote forest, mass graves and military interference ensuring that many families to this day have no idea what happened to their relatives. The Government has made the obtaining of Death Certificates very difficult to come by. Seven years must pass before a missing person can be declared dead in Kenya. As a result widows have been unable to claim insurance, land rights, school fees and bursaries of any kind, causing entire families to suffer long after the official ceasefire in the Mt Elgon conflict. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Human Rights Watch.)
 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: The Imam of the Djingareiber Mosque, Timbuktu's oldest and most important Islamic place of worship, seen during Ramadan, September 6, 2009.  Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, Islam is at the heart of that learning as is medicine, science, law and technology. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 TIMBUKTU, MALI, JANUARY 2010: Late Afternoon scenes at a funeral in the streets of Timbuktu, MALI, 5 JANUARY 2010. Funerals in Timbuktu are conducted separately, with the woman mourning inside the house of the deceased and the men outside on the street involved in prayers and remembrance in the Islamic tradition. (PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC.)
 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009:  Timbuktu Marabout Mohamed Lamine ould Seing Almoustapha counsels a psychologically disturbed man who is chained to a post in the Marabout's home, 19 September 2009. Marabout's are the Timbuktu equivalent of a therapist but with more than a little of the supernatural thrown in. The Marabout here is tending a man who has been voluntarily turned over to him by the man's family and chained up for the 40 day period of the therapy. Almoustapha caters mostly to the mentally disturbed and also to infertile women but he also manufactures "Gris-Gris," talisman pieces which he prepares to protect against harm and other evils. He recently was held to task when a Mali army colonel was executed in his own home in Timbuktu by members of Al Quaeda despite wearing a Gris-Gris prepared by this Marabout. Anther Mali Army colonel also died pursuing the Al Quaeda attackers, he too was wearing Gris-Gris prepared by Almoustapha. The Marabout defends himself by saying that insufficent animal sacrifices were made by these two colonels to strengthen the Gris-Gris powers and that is why they died. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Scenes from the port of Timbuktu at the apex of the Niger River, Timbuktu is a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa on 12 September 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 TIMBUKTU, SEPTEMBER 2009: Children play in the rain in a welcome respite from the desert heat in a street scene in Timbuktu, a historical Malian city, a long established centre of learning for Africa, , September 11, 2009. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 Paul Veller gets up every morning and goes to work to hand out News papers before 5. Working on a corner in the Bronx Paul greets every person with a huge smile and great energey. Paul works as a Newspaper man only part time for extra cash and can normally be found at TGI fridays where he is a cheif.
 ORANIA, NORTH WEST CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, JULY 2010: Niklas Kirsten, a former South African Army Paratrooper, teaches Erik Du Pree hand-gun self-defence in the fields outside Orania, South Africa , July 18 2010. Orania is a privately owned South African town located along the Orange River in the Northern Cape Province. Orania is a former government workers village originally bought by a group of Afrikaners in 1991 from the South African government with the intention of creating a pure Afrikaner community which would function as a stronghold for conservative Afrikaner cultural and religious values. The community sees themselves as independant from the rest of South Africa with a goal of a self-determining Afrikaner homeland. All work in Orania is done by white Afrikaners. They do not see themselves as right wing, but are very concerned with their ultra conservative cultural and religious integrity and independence. They welcome anyone who shares those values and as a result are one hundred percent white in ethnicity. THere has been a steady rise in population numbers for Orania, due to ongoing disenfranchisement of white South Africans as a result of Black Empowerment policies of the ANC government as well as undiminished, traumatically high crime statistics which are driving whites to seek shelter in perceived safer communities such as Orania. There has also been a solid increase in the numbers of professional people moving to Orania in the face of the afore mentioned drivers. This has been further impacted by the existence of two schools in Orania, the Volkskool Orania and the CVO Skool Orania, both of which expouse a conservative Christian Afrikaner curriculum with special emphasis on Afrikaner history and religion. The Volkskool uses a self driven teaching system which relies on self-motivation by students and the CVO Skool runs along more conventional lines. Neither school receives any assistance by government but both have grown enormously over the the la
 ORANIA, NORTH WEST CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, JULY 2010: Pastor Andre Boshoff, the leader of the Afrikaaner Protestant Church, an ultra-conservative breakway of the Dutch Reformed Church, Orania, South Africa, 18 July 2010. Orania is a privately owned South African town located along the Orange River in the Northern Cape Province. Orania is a former government workers village originally bought by a group of Afrikaners in 1991 from the South African government with the intention of creating a pure Afrikaner community which would function as a stronghold for conservative Afrikaner cultural and religious values. The community sees themselves as independant from the rest of South Africa with a goal of a self-determining Afrikaner homeland. All work in Orania is done by white Afrikaners. They do not see themselves as right wing, but are very concerned with their ultra conservative cultural and religious integrity and independence. They welcome anyone who shares those values and as a result are one hundred percent white in ethnicity. THere has been a steady rise in population numbers for Orania, due to ongoing disenfranchisement of white South Africans as a result of Black Empowerment policies of the ANC government as well as undiminished, traumatically high crime statistics which are driving whites to seek shelter in perceived safer communities such as Orania. There has also been a solid increase in the numbers of professional people moving to Orania in the face of the afore mentioned drivers. This has been further impacted by the existence of two schools in Orania, the Volkskool Orania and the CVO Skool Orania, both of which expouse a conservative Christian Afrikaner curriculum with special emphasis on Afrikaner history and religion. The Volkskool uses a self driven teaching system which relies on self-motivation by students and the CVO Skool runs along more conventional lines. Neither school receives any assistance by government but both have grown enormously over th
 ORANIA, NORTH WEST CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, JULY 2010: Afrikaner Schoolchildren from the conservative Afrikaner CVO School in traditional "Volkspeel" clothing at a cultural day, July 18, 2010. Orania is a former government workers village originally bought by a group of Afrikaners in 1991 from the South African government with the intention of creating a pure Afrikaner community which would function as a stronghold for conservative Afrikaner cultural and religious values. The community sees themselves as independant from the rest of South Africa with a goal of a self-determining Afrikaner homeland. All work in Orania is done by white Afrikaners. They do not see themselves as right wing, but are very concerned with their ultra conservative cultural and religious integrity and independence. They welcome anyone who shares those values and as a result are one hundred percent white in ethnicity. THere has been a steady rise in population numbers for Orania, due to ongoing disenfranchisement of white South Africans as a result of Black Empowerment policies of the ANC government as well as undiminished, traumatically high crime statistics which are driving whites to seek shelter in perceived safer communities such as Orania. There has also been a solid increase in the numbers of professional people moving to Orania in the face of the afore mentioned drivers. This has been further impacted by the existence of two schools in Orania, the Volkskool Orania and the CVO Skool Orania, both of which expouse a conservative Christian Afrikaner curriculum with special emphasis on Afrikaner history and religion. The Volkskool uses a self driven teaching system which relies on self-motivation by students and the CVO Skool runs along more conventional lines. Neither school receives any assistance by government but both have grown enormously over the the last 5 years in Orania. The CVO skool system has over 50 branches throughout the country and expects further growth to continue. Afr
 ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young MDC Zimbabwe oppostion party burn victim, name withheld, sits alone in his room in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe, 24 June 2009. At the conclusion of 2008's March elections in Zimbabwe where the MDC emerged the winner, two Zanu PF sponsored Zimbabwean Army soldiers appeared at the MDC offices in Zaka. The soldiers shot one MDC worker in cold blood outside the office, shot another inside the office and then locked 3 more MDC officials inside and proceeded to pour 20 litres of petrol over the building, set it alight and fled. In the resultant blaze all three men suffered third degree burns before they were able to break down the door and escape. They suffered for three days without any treatment before they could reach a facility which could treat them. Once there, doctors were forced to hide the three men as Zanu PF supporters came looking for them with the intention of finishing the job the soldiers had started. The young man in the picture, a former MDC defence and security  activist, now has limited use of his hands and is blind in one eye. In a country currently at 85% unemployment he can no longer even provide manual labour in his village's rural fields.  (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 ZAKA, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young widow holds her child in a house destroyed by Zanu PF in a rural area of Zaka, Zimbabwe, 24 June 2009. She lost her husband at the conclusion of 2008's March elections in Zimbabwe where the MDC emerged the winner. Two Zanu PF sponsored Zimbabwean Army soldiers appeared at the MDC offices in Zaka. The soldiers shot one MDC worker in cold blood outside the office, shot another inside the office and then locked 3 more MDC officials inside and proceeded to pour 20 litres of petrol over the building, set it alight and fled. In the resultant blaze all three men suffered third degree burns before they were able to break down the door and escape. They suffered for three days without any treatment before they could reach a facility which could treat them. Once there, doctors were forced to hide the three men as Zanu PF supporters came looking for them with the intention of finishing the job the soldiers had started. This young widow is now dependant on the kindness of those around her for the liveliehoods of herself and her two orphaned children. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 HARARE, ZIMBABWE, JUNE 2009: A young MDC activist, 25, name withheld, sits quietly in a bedroom he rents in a shack in a makeshift township in Harare, Zimbabwe, 22 June 2009. The young man is the district security officer for the MDC in Harare East and for his political affiliation he has been arrested more than 15 times, he has been severely tortured on 4 occasions and has the scars on his body to prove it. He claims that electroshock was used on him in police cells and that he was repeatedly beaten with bike chains and iron bars. This has resulted in his diminished physical capacity which has made it very difficult for him to work. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA,  JUNE 2009: Images of Alice Machando, 31, a school teacher for Gweru, Zimbabwe, who now lives as an unemployed asylum seeker in   Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 2009.  Alice is an MDC youth activist who was abducted during the last Zimbabwe elections by Zanu PF party thugs, they tortured and abused her and ever since that incident she has suffered from a mysterious skin ailment which South African doctors cannot identify. Alice says that two other teachers who were also abducted and tortured have similar complications. Alice wishes above all else to be cured of her ailment so that she can return to Gweru so that she can continue with her job of teaching students in her part of Zimbabwe. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA,  JUNE 2009: Noel Mguti, 33, is a recently arrived Zimbabwean refugee living in dire poverty in  Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 2009. He is the former organising secretary for the opposition MDC party in Midlands, Zimbabwe. Mguti was abducted and tortured by Zanu PF party youth, who broke most of his ribs and destroyed his homestead with fire on the 26 April 2008. Mguti was forced to abandon his family and flee illegally into South Africa, pursued across Zimbabwe by Zanu PF youth who were intent on killing him. Mguti, along with thousands of other Zimbabwean refugees, is entirely reliant on the very few church groups and NGO's who are trying to aid in the Zimbabwean crisis. He works unpaid as a security guard at the Central Methodist Church in Johannesburg where he sleeps. Mguti is asmathic and diabetic and must often beg for food to survive. His injuries as a result of torture combined with his health problems make it impossible for him to find work in physical labor and his illegal status means he cannot be employed in the white collar work sector. At the time of this photograph Mguti had just heard that one of his children had died of a fractured skull in Zimbabwe. Despite tremendous personal risk, Mguti was trying to raise the funds to go back and bury that child in his home district of Zimbabwe. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA,  JUNE 2009: Susan Matsunga, 30, is a former MDC Zimbabwean opposition party Secretary for Gender on a National level, she is photographed in her half of a one bedroom shack in Lenasia,  Johannesburg, South Africa, 3 June 2009. Susan was a very active organiser for the MDC, her primary role was to identify and build the future female MP's of Zimbabwe. In the run-up to the 2008 election in Zimbabwe Susan and her MDC youth compatriots attempted to hold prayer meetings and galvanise the youth. Police attacked their gathering and beat people until they dragged off to the police station where despite their wounds they were made to keep silent and denied food and water. All MDC supporters were made to lie flat and the police walked amongst them, beating them for over an hour. When Morgan Tsangarai, the leader of the MDC arrived and asked what the police were doing, they said they were waiting for him. The police then beat him to a pulp along with the others. In this beating Susan's right arm and leg were fractured but still she was forced to climb into a cattle truck along with the others where they were driven to Central Police Station in Harare. Here Susan was tortured for a further 4 days, her torture included the use of electric shock devices on her genitals.  She was taken to a room with blood sprayed across the walls. The CIO officers holding her said that she must also leave her blood in this room. At this time Susan's mother, 67, was also arrested and badly beaten. After a  number of days Susan was told she must drink 5 litres of contaminated water and then she could go. The CIO visited her in hospital where they told her that if she did not campaign for Mugabe they would kill her. They held syringes in their hands while they were saying this. After her ordeal Susan's husband left her as a result of her affiliation with the MDC. Susan fled to South Africa where she had no papers, passport or ID documents. Sympathetic border guards let he
 RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE, KENYA, NOVEMBER 2009: An emaciated Samburu Elder pastoralist stands in his burnt-out cattle boma at at time of the worst drought in Kenya for the last 100 years, 20 November 2009.  It is traditional for the Samburu and other pastoralist groups to burn their bomas if they lose their cattle to disease or drought, it is done as a cathartic excercise to remove the bad luck of the old and hopefully bring about better luck for the future. Many Samburu have lost up to 95% of their herds, making starvation a real threat over the coming months. The drought has brought about increasingly deadly conflict between pastoralists as well as conservationists all competing for grazing land. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE, KENYA, NOVEMBER 2009: Images of a massacre site where the Pokot tribesman came out of the Rift Valley, their traditional area, and attacked a Samburu village over cattle grazing rights in the north of Kenya at a time of the worst drought in the region for the last 100 years, 20 November 2009. 25 Samburu men, women and children were killed in the attack, over 50 cattle were shot and over 300 died later in the week from not being able to access grazing land because of the threat of the Pokot. The drought has brought about increasingly deadly conflict between pastoralists as well as conservationists all competing for grazing land. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 RIFT VALLEY PROVINCE, KENYA, NOVEMBER 2009: Controversial Kenyan Administrative Police search for weapons and suspects as they move through a Samburu village in the region of Samburu National Park in the north of Kenya at a time of the worst drought in Kenya for the last 100 years, 20 November 2009. 2 days after these pictures were taken, 12 people were killed in this area by the AP's, with claims of political motivations behind the killings. Most of the Samburu cattle have succumbed to the worst drought to hit Kenya in over 100 years and many Samburu now face starvation as a result of their decimated herds being unable to supply a steady food supply for communities. Tensions are high as pastoralists tribes as well as conservationists are all competing for tiny pockets of grazing land. Cattle raiding is commonplace and increasingly armed conflict over grazing rights is becoming the norm. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 LAISAMIS, MARSABIT SOUTH, NORTH KENYA: A Kenya Police reservist guards Borana cattle which were raided by Rendille Moran tribesman in retaliation for a huge Boran raid in September 2009, North of Kenya, 27 February 2010. The police are being assisted in this matter by the members of the Melako Conservancy who are formed from the local community and are involved in conservancy and other peace-keeping affairs for the region. A cattle  exchange is planned between the Rendille and the Borana which will be mediated by the Melako conservancy comittee and the police. North Kenya is currently undergoing an intense disarmament process in which the Kenyan Army and Administrative Police are trying to disarm the local tribes, mainly the Borana, the Samburu, the Rendille and Somalis, amongst others. This process is controversial as the tribes feel they have to have weapons to protect against cattle raids from the other tribes. This is an age old conflict but the Rendille and Samburu feel especially vulnerable as the Borana exist on both sides of the border region with Kenya and can thus access weapons from their fellow tribesmen on the Ethiopian side. This is also true of the Somalis and as such the Rendille and Samburu feel especially vulnerable. Although weapons have been collected there are many stories of violence by the Kenyan authorities against the tribes in this process, especially against the Samburu and the Rendille. This process has not been helped by the fact that many of the biggest cattle raids in history have been made by the Borana against the Rendille and Samburu in the last year. It looks unlikely that of the 23 000 weapons allegedly in the field only a few hundred have thus far been collected. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KOYA, MARSABIT SOUTH, NORTH KENYA: Melako Conservancy Scouts patrol around abandoned buildings in Koya, an area which became a vast no mans land after extensive cattle raiding between the Rendille tribe and the Borana tribe, Koya, north Kenya, 28 February 2010. Images of tribal conflict and cattle and wildlife raids adorn the walls of an abandoned clinic illustrating the tensions of the area. The Rendille ended up moving 42 kilometers away and the Borana also pulled back, leaving a viable pastoral and conservation area deserted and contentious. The Melako Conservancy community group with the help of the Northern Rangelands trust are trying to rehabilitate the area for both Pastoralists and for wildlife tourism. The scouts are appointed by the community and with the help of a few Kenya Administrative Police are trying to secure the area and the wildlife so that people may safely return and invest in the area for both their cattle and tourism returns. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)
 MINDIMA VILLAGE, CHIMBU PROVINCE, HIGHLANDS, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-DECEMBER 2008: A traditionally dressed elder in a village in Chimbu Province, Highlands, Papua New Guinea, 18 December 2008.  These outfits will be worn only on special occasions, namely Sing-Sing tribal get-togethers, Moka Compensation ceremonies, Bride-Price ceremonies and feasts. The man in the picture is a leader in the village and he is on his way to a compensation ceremony in which money and pigs will be exchanged for a land deal with another village. This convoluted process of compensation is part of the traditional way of life of village people. It is based on a system which addresses a community rather than individuals and is meant as an insurance system for the general well-being of all. In reality it limits access to education and medicine and is in many ways similar to compensation litigation in the USA. No-one benefits in the long term as individual efforts are closely monitored for flaws for which compensation is then sought, this often results in a one step forwards, two steps backwards mentality. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 LAKE MURRAY, WESTERN PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-JANUARY 2008: Scenes of kids enjoying the lake in Kubut Village, Lake Murray, Papua New Guinea, 1 January 2009. Lake Murray is a region where people have lived lives in harmony with nature for centuries. People make their living by hunting, farming, fishing, and growing rubber trees and now also with Eco-forestry. Their life-styles are dependant on the harmony between them and nature and they are trying to ensure a sustainable relationship for future generations.  This has been complicated and compromised by the interventions of both international mining and logging groups over the last few decades but local community resistance is growing as rising anger mounts at the environmental damage done to rivers and forests which form the backbone of the village survival system. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 MIDDLE SEPIK, PAPUA NEW GUINEA-DECEMBER 2008: The interior of a family hut in a Karawari village of the middle Sepik river, 15 December 2008. The Karawari are the most remote of the floodplains people, with many vllages along the river barely a generation old. The most recent settlements date only from 1996. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 PORGERA, PAPUA NEW GUINEA HIGHLANDS, NOVEMBER 2010: An impoverished Papuan family illegally prospects in a mine tailings river with heavy metal laden waters on the outskirts of the Porgera Joint Venture Mine, Papua New Guinea, Porgera, Papua New Guinea, 21 November 2010. These empoverished people engage in illegal mining on the dumps and tailings outflow areas of the mine in order to survive. They take their five year old daughter and their 7 year old son with them on their daily mining excercises, child workers are a common site on these dumps which are both toxic and a highly dangerous illegal environment. Many of these local people sold their land to the mine for a period of the operational life of the mine. They underestimated how long the mine would keep going and the expansion thereof. The Mine dumps now flow onto the last viable land of these local people and they illegally mine those dumps to eke out a living. The ability to grow vegetable gardens is very limited and there is no hunting anymore. There are regular clashes between these illegal miners and the Porgera Joint Venture mine security force. That security force has regularly beaten, detained and handed these miners over to the police. When the illegal female miners are caught they are often offered a choice of rape or jail. There are a number of reported incidents of gang rape, with the victims too scared to file charges in court. The mine finances both its own security force of ex policeman and military as well as the local PNG government police who they have brought to the area. The environmental damage caused by the Porega Mine is a major threat to this landscape and the wellbeing of the local people who have lived in harmony with their environment for centuries. The Porgera Joint Venture Mine dumps 6.2 million tons of tailings sediment into the local river system every year. Close to the mine the waters are red from these tailings and it is feared that long term damage of the river system is inev
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Daily life in Papua New Guinea
 KIKA, CAMEROON, JULY 2010: Members of the Baka Pygmy tribe, the original forest dwellers of the Cameroon forests, Kika, Cameroon, June 9, 2010. The Baka have small logging concessions of their own in community forest areas but are plaughed by a lack of education, logging equipment, access to markets and an addiction to alcohol fostered by their Bantu neighbours who ruled them for many years and who often pay the Baka for labor in alcohol. Logging roads and subsequent small towns created by logging concessions are bringing man and infrastructure further into the forest of Cameroon than ever before, Kika, Cameroon, June 5, 2010. This is severely threatening the great forests of the Congo Basin, one of the last great Forest reserves in the world. The Congo Basin forests cover an area the combined size of France and South Africa. The forests of Cameroon form a large part of this basin. Still relatively intact and connected, these forest ecosystems and freshwater systems are home to abundant wildlife and provide food, shelter, clean water and protection against floods to more than 75 million people. The economic value of these systems is enormous. Timber alone is worth several Billion Euros annually to the Forest industry, while minerals are also being heavily exploited. The importance of the Congo Basin as a global, natural reservoir to store Carbon is also massive. CO2 emissions from deforestation of this region could be devastating for agriculture and water resources. The challenges for Cameroon are enormous. If social and economic development needs are to be met, then development will have to be sustainable. As such a number of key threats will have to be addressed: 1. Unsustainable Timber exploitation – as much 50% of all timber from the region is believed to be illegal. This represents 10-15 billion Euros annually. 2.	Major Infrastructure Development – this is linked to the increasing exploitation of logging, mining and oil exploration as well as potential dam
Yemen and the Guantanamo connection
 AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: War victim eight year old Abbas, is seen at the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010.  Abbas was walking with his uncle in the Sa'ada region when his uncle stepped on a landmine and was blown to pieces. Shrapnel from the mine, ordinance from the war between Yemeni Government forces and the Al-Houthi Shiite group, sprayed into Abbas's chest and blinded him in one eye. Abbas's ten year old sister was also injured in the blast. They represent two of thousands of children at dire risk in this conflict. A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316 000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 HODEIDAH, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: An eight year old amputee Nigerian boy locked up in Hodeidah Central Prison,  Hodeidah, Yemen, August 12, 2010. He is in prison with a man who claims to be his brother. They were captured by Yemeni authorities while trying to get to Saudi Arabia to seek work or to beg for funds. There is a possibility that this boy is a child trafficking victim who has been deliberately mamed in order to make him a more viable begging prospect in Saudi Arabia. He has subsequently been rescued from this prison by the joint efforts of Unicef and UNHCR, who have removed him to a safer environment while they investigate his case. He has already spent more than 13 months in this prison in the company of adult prisoners. This prison houses a majority of African illegal immigrants who have made their way by perilous land and boat journeys to Yemen from Nigeria, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. They are in Yemen in order to make their way to Saudi Arabia. Most attempt to walk to Saudi from their beach landing in Hodeidah and cross the Yemen/Saudi Border illegally in order to secure manual labour employment. The majority of the inmates of this prison have been caught and imprisoned in the process of this endevour. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: War affected Internally Displaced children living inamongst rural communities close to the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010.  A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 AL-MAZRAQ, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: Female Unicef Aid workers seen at the Al-Mazraq IDP camps, Al-Mazraq, Yemen, August 14, 2010.  A shaky ceasefire reached in February 2010 brought a halt to the 6th round of conflict between the Government of Yemen and the Shiite Al-Houti group in the Sa'ada Governate. The situation is fragile and sporadic clashes are ongoing. According to UNHCR, around 316000 Internally Displaced People are scattered throughout the five conflict affected governates of Hajjah, Amran, Sa'ada, Al-Jawf and Sana'a. Over 60% of these people are women and children. Food, water and sanitation needs are extensive and various child protection issues have also emerged, ie landmine and ordinance risk, war trauma and the recruitment of children by armed forces. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 ADEN, YEMEN, AUGUST 2010: Scenes of severely malnourished Yemeni children in the Therapeutic feeding center at the Al-Wahda teaching hospital, Aden, Yemen, August 11, 2010. Malnutrition is a chronic problem in Yemen, 58% of children under five are stunted as a result of lack of aequate nutrition, 15%  are wasting and 46% are underweight. Poverty is a heavy contributor to these conditions. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 KAJIADO, KENYA, FEBRUARY 2010: A Kenyan schoolgirl plays with a Somali schoolgirl inside a classroom in a muslim school in Kajiado, Kenya, 10 February 2010. The Somalis are rising across Kenya. Their war tempered tenacity and talent as traders has made them formidable businessmen and in large towns like Kajiado, the Somalis and their brand of Islam is dominant and growing. Somalis and their Kikuyu partners have acquired large tracts of land from naïve pastoralists who now find themselves squeezed into unsustainable pockets of grazing land. As a consequence many are forced into urban poverty. This guarantees the increasing domination of the Somalis who already have political representation in Nairobi. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images)
 Northern Zambia, August 2003. Zambia enters its 6th year of severe drought. A starving farmers sits amongst the ruins of his failed crop. He is HIV+ and his malnutrition has greatly accelerated the decline of his immune system.
 BUNGOMA, KENYA - 13 SEPTEMBER: Images of a laborer in the rice-fields of Dominion Farm, the largest private American investment in Kenya, September 13, 2007 in Bungoma, Kenya. The farm's owners are staunch Christians but unlike most evangelical movements who come to Africa they do not wish to provide traditional aid, they wish to uplift the people via sustainable, realistic business sense. The farm specialises in Fish breeding and massive Rice production and has resisted protest and corruption on their way to success. They believe in the business potential of Africa and Africans and express disapointment at the lack of American business investment in Africa. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 GAIBANDAH, BANGLADESH-AUGUST 2008: Vulnerable farmers on flood damaged islands work to clear rice fields damaged by annual floods which destroy crops and homes amongst the poor on a yearly basis, Gaibandah, Bangladesh, 2 August 2008. Bangladesh is one of the worst affected countries in terms of food security. The price of food staples have doubled in the last 5 months and civil unrest is a possibility in the near future. Rising world energy prices, one of the world's poorest populations, and a loss of government subsidies for food staples combined with the world's highest flood plain has meant that many people are down to one meal a day. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
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 DHAKA, BANGLADESH - JULY 2008: A young Rickshaw Puller eats his single meal of the day in an impoverished slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh on 31 July 2008.  Bangladesh is one of the worst affected countries in terms of food security. Rising world energy prices, one of the world's poorest populations, a loss of government subsidies for food staples and subsequent price increases from merchant stockpiling has meant that many poor people are down to one meal a day. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 KURIGRAM, BANGLADESH-AUGUST 2008: Flood affected village men hack away the embankment left by the most recent flooding in the area where their village used to be, Kurigram, Northern Bangladesh, 2 August 2008. They are doing this on the orders of the local landowner who is using this earth for contruction in another area. These men are effectively further removing the only barrier between them and further flooding but desperately need the small amount they are paid so do the work anyway. The lack of a serious engineering works aimed at flood prevention in Bangladesh is behind the suffering of millions of impoverished rural people. Annual predicable floods bring misery to millions without any effective counter plan. A fatalistic nations chooses instead to move rather than try to combat the flooding through engineering ingenuity. Flooding, Poverty and lack of protected land ownership amongst the poor is driving a serious food crisis in Bangladesh. A male labourers makes around 90 US cents a day while a women makes around 50 US cents a day working in the fields. Extreme poverty and rising food prices couple with an oversupply of cheap labour has meant that many people can only afford to eat once a day.  Many labourers sell their services up to a year ahead and have been caught out by rampant food prices which are beyond the reach of their wages. Bangladesh is one of the worst affected countries in terms of food security. The price of food staples have doubled in the last 5 months and civil unrest is a possibility in the near future. Rising world energy prices, one of the world's poorest populations, and a loss of government subsidies for food staples combined with the world's highest flood plain has meant that many people are down to one meal a day. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 DUS, OMO VALLEY, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Karo people in the Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 LORYRA, SOUTH OMO, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Dassanech people in the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
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 LORYRA, SOUTH OMO, ETHIOPIA, DECEMBER 2007: Images of the Dassanech people in the Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia, 14 December 2007. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
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 KABUL, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Scenes from a drugs bust conducted by the Afghan Anti-Narcotics unit assisted by American DEA agents who have been training these men for over 2 years, Kabul, Afghanistan, 18 April 2007. The images show a search scene and arrest with 2 suspects in custody. 6 kilos of processed heroin was confiscated in the raid. Afghanistan currently produces over 90% of the world's illegal opium and the industry accounts for over 45% of the countries annual GDP. A great deal of this production is based on communal poverty and a lack of alternatives for farmers combined with coercion from the opium cartels of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The event is filmed by CNN freelance crew Cameraman Richard Parry and producer Tresha Mabile. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 KABUL, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Scenes from a drugs bust conducted by the Afghan Anti-Narcotics unit assisted by American DEA agents who have been training these men for over 2 years, Kabul, Afghanistan, 18 April 2007. The images show a search scene and arrest with 2 suspects in custody. 6 kilos of processed heroin was confiscated in the raid. Afghanistan currently produces over 90% of the world's illegal opium and the industry accounts for over 45% of the countries annual GDP. A great deal of this production is based on communal poverty and a lack of alternatives for farmers combined with coercion from the opium cartels of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The event is filmed by CNN freelance crew Cameraman Richard Parry and producer Tresha Mabile. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 KABUL, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Scenes with drug addicts at an underfunded rehabilitation centre and at the place where they use drugs, Kabul Afghanistan, 16 April 2007. CNN Senior international correspondent Anderson Cooper interviews addicts for a show on the drug war taking place in Afghanistan today. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 JALALABAD, AFGHANISTAN-APRIL 2007: Images from illegal opium producing poppy farms an hours travel outside of  Jalalabad, Afghanistan, 19 April 2007. Afghanistan currently produces over 90% of the world's illegal opium and the industry accounts for over 45% of the countries annual GDP. A great deal of this production is based on communal poverty and a lack of alternatives for farmers combined with coercion from the opium cartels of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The event is filmed by CNN freelance crew Cameraman Richard Parry and producer Tresha Mabile. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
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 SUN VALLEY IDAHO-14 AUGUST 2006: : Amputee veteran Specialist Andew W. Soule, 25, looks across at the horse he will be riding from his elevated chair lift position. He is learning how to ride properly as part of a series of sports choices he made for a week of outdoor activity designed as part of his rehabilitation process. These images focus on a week in the outdoors with three disabled war wounded veterans from the Iraq, Afghanistan conflicts. Andy Soule, 25, is a specialist who was blown out os his vehicle by an IED in Afghanistan. Andy is a double above the knee amputee.  

Higher Ground is a program run by Sun Valley Adaptive sports in Kethum Idaho. They are  an NGO looking to provide a sports based meaningful rehabiliation experience for disabled veterans.  The program involved taking the men, all of whom are amputees of sorts, down the Main Salmon River on a 4 day river rafting trip and then offering them the opportunity afterwards to pursue futher sporting intersts such as climbing, parasailing, kayaking and horse-riding. The program also encourages disabled veterans to bring their wives on the program. It is aimed at a healthier and speedier recovery through outdoor recreation.
Sports Rehabilitation for US veterans - Category 5
Sports Rehabilitation for US veterans - Category 5
Sports Rehabilitation for US veterans - category 5
Sports Rehabilitation for US Veterans - category 5
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 ZAMBIA-ZIMBABWE BORDER-APRIL 2003: A dying Aids patient is bathed for the final time by her mother and aunt. The girl passed away half an hour after this final gesture. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.
 SOWETO SOUTH AFRICA-MAY 2005: An Hiv+ women on anti-retrovirals does her yoga routine in the garden of her home in Soweto township. Four months prior to this she was unable to walk and considered a final stage case. The access to medication has made her life possible again. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES
 RICHARDS BAY, SOUTH AFRICA-MAY 2004: A young aids orphan stands alone in a field after a church service. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.
The Feminization of Aids, Kenya. Category 19
Zimbabe Today: Mugabe's Victims
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 KIEV, UKRAINE, SEPTEMBER 2011: Scenes from the Tuberculosis Hospital in Kiev, Ukraine, 7 September 2011. Staff work under difficult conditions, with many patients who are drug addicts and criminals. There are also severe shortages in terms of funding for new equipment and security for the staff. Staff in the hospital have been attacked by patients, police are afraid of the disease these patients carry and have not acted to protect the nurses and doctors who risk their lives daily in the care of these patients. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
 SOUTHERN SRI LANKA-NOVEMBER 2005: A Tsunami survivor sits and cries in the ruins of the house she used to share with her husband and two children. They were lost in the wave and she now lives in the ruins of the house trying to work out how to reclaim some part of her life. Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images
MM7691
The Latinization of Baseball
The Latinization of Baseball
 DAJABON DOMINICAN REPUBLIC- JUNE 7 2005: On a rural field near the Haitian border, young men wait to show their skills to scouts who represent the Major League teams. If selected the boys will be invited to attend one of the academies in the capital San Pedro where they will be tested to see if they have the neccesary qualities for the Major Leagues. On this day none of the boys were selected. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES
 SHARJAH, UAE MAY 2005: Channana Ram, 60, an abandoned worker, washes out of a bucket in squallid conditions in a makeshift camp for abandoned workers in Sharjah, UAE. RAm worked for 25 years for East Coast Hamria Construction Company. At 60 he was scheduled to retire and be payed out a 25 year service settlement for his retirement back to India. Instead he and over 300 other workers were abandoned by their company over 18 months ago. In a protracted and prejudical court battle which is ongoing he was told he would be fortunate to receive even half of what he is owed. Channana has only been home 7 times in 25 years and has worked on many prominent building projects in Dubai. "If I don't get my payment, I will commit suicide, if they pay me what I am owed I will leave immediately. I have been cheated, me and my fellow workers, We completed our jobs on time and we deserve to get paid." Channana has only an expired passport and expired visa and has received no help from the Indian embassy in Dubai despite repeated requests. Workers in this camp all complained about the corruption endemic to the passport/visa process for labourers. "The government here in Dubai does not care about us, more than that, our own government does not care either." Recently there was trouble in Dubai as migrant labourers protested at harsh working conditions and pay disputes. The labourers work long shifts on the 24 hour sites and the labour camps are often over 2 hours away. The workers typically work a 12 hour shift in tough conditions. The majority of labourers come to Dubai from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. These workers operate in extreme temperatures in the desert climate, the majority earning under $200 a month. Many have to spend a third of that sum on food provided at the camps as part of their contract. Most sign recruitment contracts in their own countries which take them into debt for many years. Their passports are held by their employers once they reach the UAE and if the compa
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 DHARMSALA, INDIA-DECEMBER 2003: Tibet's longest serving political prisoner Palden Gatso demonstrates how he was tortured by the Chinese prison guard using electric cattle prods. Gatso was imprisoned for peaceful protest. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES
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 Kalahari Desert, South Africa-October 2006: Shoot with Kalahari San Bushmen in conjunction with Lion Television Productions for Discovery Atlas series. The shoot examines 2 days in the shooting schedule. The film attempts to portray aspects of traditional life for the Bushmen people. It examines a long hunt involving the 4 men and also a trance dance which is traditionally done to ensure a good hunt, certain weather etc. The dance helps to gird the Bushmen for the taxing exertion of the hunt. the 4 main protagonists were as follows: Hans Witboy, 23, he is the youngest of the 4. Buks Hendrik Kruiper, 50, he has an element of red to his loin cloth and very slitted eyes. Isak Kruiper, 48, is often the leader of the group. He wears an animal skin hat in the pictures. Abijong Kruiper, 63, is the oldest member and he stands often on one leg while waiting, resting one leg on the other. 
Pictures by Brent Stirton for the Discovery Channel.
 MORRIS PLAINS, NEW JERSEY, 9 JULY 2015: Research scientists process human T cells inside the cell processing facility at the Morris Plains, New Jersey Novartis facility. This laboratory is where the T cells of cancer patients are processed and turned into super cells as part of a revolutionary new Gene therapy based cancer treatment Novartis is a part of.
 KISUMU, KENYA, 18 JUNE 2015: A mother and child under mosquito netting, a major weapon in these rural areas in the fight against Malaria. A Malaria surveilance team from the Walter Read Project on Malaria undertakes daily case studies in the Nyanza District of Kisumu, Kenya. The surveilance team will typically weight the child, take down the family details and medical history, conduct a Rapid Test for malaria, draw a blood sample and continue to monitor that child for up to a 4 year period. Their work is invaluable in providing samples to monitor the path and progress and mutation of Malaria. Seven different teams work 5 days a week, visiting 5 households per day across the Nyanza district. Agnes Akoth Onyango, 57, is the Chief Nurse of the Walter Read Project, Kisumu, Kenya. Agnes is seen at the Kemri Insectology lab where mosquitos are specifically bred for Malaria research. Agnes has been a front line nurse in the fight against Malaria for over 31 years. She administers the staff at the Walter Read research facility and also has strong relations with the Kombewa District hospital. Agnes works with a number of field surveillance teams who monitor the population of the Nyanza province of Kenya, helping to maintain and update Walter Read’s case studies of over 40 years research into Malaria. Agnes supervises the teams, works with the laboratory staff and the local hospitals in keeping an up to date record on the progress of Malaria, staying one step ahead of the disease which kills over 5 million people annually. She also works with the Kemri group of disease research facilities in the Kisumu area. These provide a valuable database for the mutation of the Malaria parasite, helping to develop effective medication to combat the disease. Agnes has devoted her life to this theme, finding self-worth and tremendous satisfaction in her work. She is well know across her community and still finds time to go with surveillance teams to build case studies as well lecture on M
 CHONGWE DISTRICT, ZAMBIA, 14 JANUARY 2014: Rural community health care worker Dismuss,44, pedals his bicycle ambulance on the way to the rural Chongwe community clinic, delivering a young boy suffering from Malaria. Dismuss lives a distance of 14 kilometers from the clinic and services over 500 households in his area. He adminsters rapid testing for Malaria and adminster Coartem anti-Malarials for both adults and children. Dismuss is a volunteer worker and receives no pay for this work. He has 9 children and his wife was recently diagnosed with Leukemia. Chongwe District, Zambia.
 TROY, NEW YORK, 5 MAY 2014: Hillary Savoie takes her daughter outside for a bubble blowing session at their home in Troy, New york. Esme' Savoie, 3, suffers from a rare genetic disease know as PCDH19, a genetically mutated orphan disease of the kind which Novartis's N.I.B.R division feels they can learn a great deal, Troy, NY, 5 May 2014. Esme's parents Hillary and Andre Savoie have become experts in Esme's syndrome and are involved in fundraising for continued research and are a study case for Boston Childrens hospital and Novartis. PCDH19 Female Limited Epilepsy has been diagnosed in approximately 200 girls and women worldwide. PCDH19 FLE have been associated with the occurrence of epilepsy, a spectrum of developmental delays, and behavioral issues that occur almost exclusively in girls and women. Novartis is one of the few big pharmaceutical companies which is doing extensive research into diseases of the brain. This is particularly important now as autism numbers are increasing and it is estimated that as many as 1 in 50 children is currently affected by this syndrome in one from or another. Novartis has made remarkable strides in their developments and Ricardo Dolmetsch, head of research, feels confident of major breakthroughs in the next few years. 
PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) has a spectrum of symptoms. Almost all of the girls affected by PCDH19 mutations exhibit seizures of many types, but the most typical characteristic of PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) is the tendency of the seizures to cluster and interfere with breathing (causing cyanotic spells). Some of the girls affected with PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) have cognitive delays, much of the research indicates that about two-thirds of the girls have Intellectual Delay (ID) ranging from mild to moderate. Additionally, about 40% of the girls with PCDH19 FLE (EFMR) are on the autism spectrum. Many of those with PCDH19 also exhibit behavioral and psychological problems including aggression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and, in some cases,
 CHINKO, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: New Rangers train to protect elephants in Chinko, a remote last haven for forest elephants in CAR. These rangers are up against experienced Sudanese poachers as well as local Seleka fighters who prey up on the elephants to finance their rebellion within CAR. The rangers are struggling to get weapons because of a UN weapons embargo which makes fighting Seleka and the Sudanese impossible for now. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)
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 CHINKO PROJECT, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, MARCH 2015: Members of Kawa Hunting Safaris skin and carry a Bongo Antelope deep inside the Chinko Reserve. The Chinko project is a new conservation initiative which aims to manage a natural reserve of wooded Savannah and tropical rainforest deep within the Central African Republic. The reserve covers roughly 17,600 sq km of the Chinko/Mbari Drainage basin. It is a place that will attempt to go beyond conservation and provide stability and governance in one of the world’s poorest regions through sustainability. Humane and monitored tourist hunting is a key element of this. The major problems are poaching by Sudanese groups who come for ivory, Mboro Cattle herders who also come from Sudan and decimate the area with weapons and their cattle as well as local hunters who hunt for both profit and the pot. Bongo Antelope, Giant Eland, forest Elephant, Leopards, Wild Dog and Chimpanzees are just a few of the species under threat in Chinko today. The Chinko project conducts biological and social research, provides incentives for herdsmen to use designated corridors, it is attempting to build capacity by training new rangers who monitor and patrol, detecting and disarming poachers. This is a region where species can quickly return, making for one of the most bio-diverse regions in Africa. Time is of the essence, while animal numbers are still high enough for a comeback. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage.)
 ALEXANDRA TOWNSHIP, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA - JUNE 7: The Alexandra township Crime Prevention Forum member's patrol confront scenes of domestic violence, June 7, 2008 in Alexandra township, South Africa. The patrol does not receive the backing they deserve from the local police, and often complain of police in-action in cases they initiate. Members of the C.P.F regularly risk their lives to protect the Alexandra community from crime and violence. They have confiscated 611 illegal guns in their history. Three were shot and killed last year alone in Alexandra. The Crime Prevention Forum is an idea that has been around since 1994, and is based on the fact that township people can expect little help from the police who cannot even come into some of these township communities without being attacked. As a result these CPF's conduct weekend patrols and act against rapists, burglars and other criminals. They do this with no financial assistance and very few weapons other than a whip "sjambok" with which to subdue the criminals and one handgun amongst 15 people on foot patrol. Once captured, the criminals are handed over to the police. Controversially, it has emerged that a key member of the Alexandra C.P.F is one of the individuals who, in a meeting in May 2008, called for the attacks on immigrants that have recently raged across South Africa. Alexandra was the genesis point for that most recent violence and it is disturbing that a member of the community anti-crime force should be involved in such a bloody affair. The most recent spate of xenophobic violence has left more than 70 people dead and over 30 000 displaced across South Africa. (photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images.)
 The last year South Africa had prisoners on death row.
 DAG ALLAL, TIMBUKTU, MALI,  SEPTEMBER 2009: Tuareg men plant grass in the banks of the Niger River to grow a forage crop for their animals and for sale in the markets in the sedentary Tuareg village of Dag Allal in Mali on 11 September 2009. Unusual amongst Tuareg for their sedentary, non-nomadic existence, these Tuaregs remain in place all year and care for their animals by utilising agricultural techniques. They have received help from the Millenium Village Project which aims to empower local communities through education. They grow rice and forage grass in the nearby Niger river, using a canal and small pump to divert water into ricepaddies. Their leader, El Hadg Agali Ag Mohammoud, 70, explains that reasons of drought, rebellion, identity issues and a lack of union amongst the Tuareg caused this group to choose to remain in one place, "We live here all year, we take care of our animals by growing the grass that they wouldn't normally have in the hot summer months, other Tuareg don't always understand this, they think that this grass grows naturally. We sometimes have to prevent them taking it, we have to explain that we grow it for our animals and it is not free. Sometimes there is a confrontation as a result, this is not the traditional Tuareg way so we have to explain it to them. I think in the future there will be more Tuareg living this way. "(Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)
 BOLGATANGA, GHANA-JANUARY 2004: A man blinded by Trachoma, a preventable disease of the eyes conected to poor hygiene and lack of access to clean water. (PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/REPORTAGE BY GETTY IMAGES.)
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 THE MALDIVES, NOVEMBER, 2003: Fishermen raise empty nets on a coral atoll which was previously bountiful, The Maldives, November 6, 2003. Global warming has led to the death of the reef and as a result little fish remain. On top of this, the Maldives is the nation most threatened by rising water levels due to climate change. Island nations around the world are increasingly under threat from rising water levels. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

ISHANGO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 6 MAY 2015: European Union commissioned instructors teach Virunga National Park rangers skills for concealment, bush craft, weapons and survival in their fight against paramilitary groups and poachers in the Park. Groups like the Hutu led FDLR and Ugandan ADF continue to make conservation problematic and dangerous inside Virunga, well known as one of the worlds most dangerous places to practice conservation. This group is a smaller subset of Rangers who will receive specialized training for a quick reaction force. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

Rhino Wars This photo essay attempts to look at the environmental crisis caused by Asia’s appetite for Rhino horn. The horn is part of an ancient Asian medical system and today is seen as a curative for everything from Cancer to Kidney stones. Essentially keratin, a mild alkaline substance identical to fingernails, the horn is ground down in grinding bowls and mixed with water. This is then ingested by the sick and the wealthy of Vietnam and China, the imbiber hoping for miracle cures, when in fact science shows us it has a placebo effect at best. The use of horn dates back over 2000 years but the recent economic rise of countries like China and Vietnam and the subsequent wealth of the new upper class has had disastrous effects on the world’s remaining rhino population. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold and the poaching crisis is a perfect storm of that value playing out in the most corrupt wildlife systems with some of the poorest poachers as well as rhino ranchers who see millions of dollars in pushing to legalize the trade. South Africa is the main repository of the world’s remaining rhino, figure less than 20,000 animals. South Africa is on track to lose over 1600 animals this year, a figure that has risen every year since 2006 when less than 20 animals were killed for their horns. This essay examines the crisis along the Mozambique/South African border where daily incursions by armed poachers has resulted in a war which plays out inside Kruger National Park, the largest reserve for rhino in the world. We see the poachers with silenced weapons, the middle men arrested in sting operations by Mozambican authorities and the few rhino who dare to venture into Mozambique, protected by a tiny NGO who is the only effective organization in country. The average life expectancy for a Kruger rhino in Mozambique is 24 hours, a country where they were recently declared extinct. The essay goes on to show widows who have lost husbands and sons in this fight, range

MOAMBA, MOZAMBIQUE, 19 APRIL 2016: Two rhino poachers, one 19, the other 28 years old, apprehended by an anti-poaching team in Mozambique close to Kruger National Park border. They are seen waiting to be processed in the local jail. After a three day chase they were caught in a roadblock and the rifle seized shortly thereafter. This was due to a co-ordinated effort between Kruger National Park in South Africa where the poachers intended to shoot rhino for their horn; and Sabi Game Park, a conservancy on the Mozabique side. The poachers were tracked and identified by their unique shoe pattern. They tried to say they had been on their way to buy cattle but had no money on their persons and the alleged cattle owner said he did not know anything about selling his cattle. A Czech CZ .458 hunting rifle was seized, complete with a professionally built silencer. Both men admitted their guilt and will be charged under new Mozambican law which states that possesion on the weapon and bullets indicates intent to poach rhino, this carries a maximum sentence of 12 years and/or $80,000.00. Their Toyota Hilux vehicle was also confiscated. The younger of the two poachers, 19, later led police to the homes of suspected weapons and transport suppliers, higher ups in the rhino poaching syndicates known as level 2's and 3's. Those men had fled by the time the police arrived but significant information was discovered in the form of identity documents, both real and forged, as well as banking account information. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic Magazine.)

LIMPOPO, SOUTH AFRICA, 2 APRIL 2016: “Shoelaces on steroids.” That's how Saving the Survivors PR Spokesperson Suzanne Boswell Rudham described Tuesday's groundbreaking procedure using human abdominal surgery technology to stretch the wounded edges the gaping wound created by horn poachers who removed most of the face of the world's most famous rhino, “Hope.” The Saving the Survivors team member joined a team of top wildlife vets on a Limpopo plot of land, where they stitched the elastymers, imported from Canada, on to Hope's battered face. They are hoping that it will to pull the edges of the wound together and finally heal the massive wound, which happened when poachers hacked off almost all of her face last May. But the world-famous animal with the indomitable spirit has clung to life - and has become an ambassador for the conservation of her ever-threatened species, Johan Marais, a wildlife vet and founder of Saving the Survivors, told a small group of onlookers gathered around him and his team. In a procedure that lasted just over an hour, they inserted pulley systems in Hope’s skin to "crank the laces" to close the massive cavity on her face. In Hope's latest procedure - she has already had five major surgeries and other smaller ones - they used an abdominal re-approximation anchor system, imported from Canada by local distributors Surgitech. "Basically it's developed for people who've had stomach surgery where they can't close the wound," Rudham explained. "Whereas before they used it to stitch it and staple it, now this system... actually pulls in the tissue without destroying any cells." In the past year, 60% of Hope's face has healed, but she's not out of the woods yet, explains Marais. Hope’s gaping wound is constantly attacked by flies and maggots. "We're hoping to make that cavity a lot smaller and then we'll put a wound matrix over that with collagen for the cells to start growing together," adds Rudham. After the procedure, the bandaged rhi

SABIE GAME PARK, MOZAMBIQUE, 9 APRIL 2016: A combined force of Sabie Game Park Rangers, Garda Frontier soldiers and Fauna Bravia soldiers arrest and detain Moses Chauque, a level 2 rhino poacher who arranges weapons and transport for rhino poachers. There are multiple arrest warrants for Chauque, both in Mozambique and South Africa. This arrest was put together with intelligence gathered by IAPF, the International Anti-Poaching Foundation, the only effective Anti-poaching group on the ground in Mozambique. Moses Chauque was identified in statements from two seperate groups of poachers who were arrested in Mozambique with CZ hunting rifles and rhino horn. Both groups made sworn statements the Chauque contracted them for rhino poaching in nearby Kruger National Park. There are also further warrants in South Africa for his alleged involvement in two murder cases. When Chauque was delivered into Police custody in Mouamba, Mozambique, the police apparently cheered that he had finally been caught. The case against him in Mozambique will now revolve around weapons charges and the statements against him made by the two groups of arrested rhino poachers. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

EZULU GAME FARM, GRAHAMSTOWN, SOUTH AFRICA, 15 MAY 2016: Four pairs of Cow and calf rhinos are captured and moved into transport for relocation to a more secure facility. This is the last of 27 Rhino that are being moved away from game farms in the Port Elizabeth/Grahamstown region where it is feared that security is inadequate to protect these rhino from poachers. 6 rhino have already been killed in the last 3 months and the professional manner in which they were poached has prompted owners to say that it is better for these rhino to leave their farms and go to a more secure facility. The rhinos will travel for 20 hours to their new location and will be sedated every three hours by a vet who will accompany them at all times. They will also be guarded by full time security for their journey and full time at their final location. It is a truism of rhino ownership these days that owners can often not afford the expense of full time security for these animals, such is the pressure from poachers and the value of their horn in Asia. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

BUFFALO DREAM RANCH, KLERKSDORP, SOUTH AFRICA, 24 MAY 2016: A two-man security team deploys by helicopter at sunset for anti-poaching duties on the worlds largest Rhino breeding ranch. The teams are at work 24 hours a day and conduct security operations from rotating positions, observation points and on mobile patrols on foot, in vehicles and by helicopter. John Hume has close to 1400 Rhino to protect on his property and they are constantly monitored by his vet Dr Michelle Otto and by Hume’s Security teams. Hume’s running costs are close to 5 million Rand a month, around $330, 000.00 per month. $200,000.00 of that is spent on security. Hume is a long time proponent of legalizing the Rhino horn trade by using humane dehorning and is one of the biggest influences in trying to get CITES to change their anti-trade stance. Hume is reputed to have more than 5 tons of rhino horn in secure locations. This would be worth around $40, 000, 000.00 on the Asian market at current prices. There are many supporters of the pro-trade agreement, with more than 1300 rhino likely to be poached per annum in this current crisis. Critics of trade state that legalizing horn trade would create loopholes that would exacerbate the killing of rhino. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, KENYA: A four man anti-poaching team permanently guards Northern White Rhino on Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, 13 July 2011. The Ol Pejeta Conservancy is an important “not-for-profit” wildlife conservancy in the Laikipia District of Kenya and the largest sanctuary for black rhinos in East Africa. It is also the home of 4 of the world's remaining 8 Northern White Rhino, the worlds most endangered animal. There has been an increase in poaching incidents on Ol Pejeta recently, in line with a massive worldwide increase in rhino poaching linked to the rise in the Asian middle class. Anti-poaching teams provide close protection to the rhino, with 24 hour observation over all rhino on Ol Pejeta and 24 hour armed guard protection over the 4 Northern White Rhino who are kept in their own Boma area. The team have developed extraordinary relationships with these Rhino, leaning on them, scratching them and displaying tremendous affection towards these most endangered of animals. Each of the men in these teams feels a genuine vocation towards the protection of these animals, something the rhino seem to sense, and this emerges on a daily basis as the men walk with the rhino through their day.

SUNDARABANS, WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 8 JANUARY 2016: Mahammad Ali Molla, 60, has been blind for the last 14 years. He goes for tea every day and his grandson accompanies him on the 2 kilometer walk to the local market. He also assists him as he drinks and eats when he is not at school. Mahammad developed a problem with his eyes when tree sap entered in them while working as an agricultural labourer. He could not access eye treatment and as his eyes were neglected he developed corneal ulcers. He sought medical help from local quacks who took his money but destroyed his one eye and damaged the other with their ill-advised treatment techniques. He received further surgery from Kolkata Medical college but they could not save his remaining vision. He spent 30 000 rupees on that trip to Kolkata and it is likely most of that money went to living away from his home while undergoing treatment as well as paying unscrupulous middle men. Mahammad is supported by his wife Samiran Molla, 55, who has had to shoulder the financial burden of raising their 5 children. They survive today with meagre fishing income and by her eating with one son and Mahammad eating with the other. It is likely Mahammad's blindness could have been prevented by access to qualified eye care but his remote location and lack of local facilities as well as his state of poverty prevented access to correct treatment. This story is not uncommon in the more remote parts of India where remote communities are encumbered by a lack of quality eye care at hand and poverty makes travel and care inaccesable. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

OMARURU, NAMIBIA, 5 November 2015: Gerd Gamanab, 67, is a completely sightless man hoping for a miracle at a blindness camp in Omaruru District hospital in Namibia. He lost his sight to 50 years of farm labour in the Namibian sun and dust, which destroyed both of his corneas. This kind of blindness is the result of living in remote locations with prolonged exposure to fierce elements and no eye care anywhere nearby. A lack of education as to what was happening to his eyes also allowed this to occur. These camps are held all over Namibia and cater to sections of the population that do not receive regular eye care, mostly as a result of poverty. The applicant are screened and if the diagnosis is a mature cataract, they are selected as candidates for a simple operation which in fifteen minutes lends signicant sight to their world. The cataract is removed by a surgical vacuum and a new lens in inserted. Bandages are removed the next day and in most cases a real improvement in vision is the result. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 17 SEPTEMBER 2014: Bharat Mallik, 7, is a boy who suffers from Cataract and Glaucoma blindness and comes from a severely impoverished Bengali family in India. He is seen at Vivekananda Mission Hospital, an eye hospital which specializes in treating the poor for little or no money. Bharat’s father is a drunk and his labourer mother struggles to make ends meet. As a result he has not been treated for his eye issues. A teacher network at school notified a local social worker and as a result of his efforts Bharat is scheduled for surgery at Vivekananda Ashram hospital a few hours away. Most of these villagers are so poor that transport to a hospital is not possible. As a result many children go permanently blind when, like Bharat, a simple operation could restore their sight. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

WEST BENGAL, INDIA 28 OCTOBER 2013: Anita and Sonia Singh explore the beginning of sight as they walk through bullrushes close to their village after undergoing eye surgery. Both Anita, 5, and her older sister Sonia, 12, are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness and they will need to excercise their new eyes for at least six months before their sight approximates normal. The surgery to cure cataract blindness is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.

WEST BENGAL, INDIA 21 OCTOBER 2013: Blind girls Sonia, 12, and Anita Singh, 5, accompany their parents during a rainstorm while they work in the fields of their rural Indian village. Both sisters are born into poverty with congenital cataract blindness. They must accompany their parents everywhere as they cannot be left alone without risk. The surgery to cure this is simple and takes 15 minutes but because of the level of poverty in this family they have been unable to pursue the necessary operation. India has more than 12 million blind, the majority of which suffer from cataract blindness. Poverty is the main reason these millions of people are trapped in this condition. Donor funding has recently enabled both sisters to finally go for this operation. This essay is an attempt to tell the story of their lives before surgery, during the operation to regain their sight and after as they begin to discover light.

CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2013: Rodrigue Katembo, Central Section Warden, Virunga National Park, leads a combined team of ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army on an patrol into an area known to have a FDLR rebel presence, Chondo, Virunga, DRC. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. Since they fled into the DRC and the park after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 190 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers are winning this battle but at a heavy price. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage)

NZARA, SOUTH SUDAN, 17 NOVEMBER 2014: Michael Oryem, 29, is a former Lord's Resistance Army fighter who was involved in the poaching of Ivory in Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a former base of operations for the LRA and a major source of financing for the notorious group. Oryem was abducted by the group when he was 9 and lived with them for over 17 years in the wild. He was made a commander in the group at the age of 12. The LRA is infamous for the killing and abduction of thousands of civilians across multiple countries. He defected and is now a member of the Ugandan Army, UPDF, African Union force hunting the LRA. he is seen with 2 of six pieces of ivory which he hid and then led the Ugandan forces to inside the border region of the Central African Republic. He claims that the LRA killed many elephants in Garamba and he was ordered by Joseph Kony, the groups notorious leader, to bring the ivory to him in Darfur, South Sudan. Ivory is now a real means of financing for the LRA, it is used for both food and weapons supplies and is traded to the Sudanese Army who transports it north to Khartoum. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

GULU, UGANDA, 21 NOVEMBER 2014: Margret Acino, 32, was attacked by members of the Lord’s Resistance Army when she was 23 and 9 months pregnant. Her lips, ears and nose were cut off and her breasts were hacked by a group of LRA men. Margret and a small group of villagers had gone to the fields for crops when they found themselves surrounded by the infamous rebels. They were taken quickly to an area outside of Gulu where the men accused them of informing on the LRA to the Ugandan Army. Two men and a child were then immediately killed with the hoes they had been carrying for farming. The commander of the rebels accused them again, confronting Margaret and accusing her of being the wife of a soldier. Her husband was in fact a simple farmer. The LRA commander then killed another women in front of her. He said this must be the truth or how could she be so confident in talking with them. He then said he would teach her not to inform ever again. He ordered his men, mostly young teenagers, to produce a razor blade. They hesitated and the commander then threatened his own men, one of them produced a razor blade and they were ordered to cut off Margret’s lips, ears and nose, a practice that was becoming an LRA trademark at the time. When the men were finished, Margret was released and told to run. She passed out from loss of blood shortly thereafter and when she revived she found a man with a bicycle who took her to an IDP. She was in surgery for 2 days, her baby was born via an emergency caesarian and Margret then lapsed into a coma for 5 days. She has had 7 surgeries since to try to repair her ravaged face. The LRA commander who ordered this brutality subsequently defected and was given amnesty. Margaret saw him at a World Vision camp and became hysterical, telling people he was the one behind her tragedy. He was moved from the camp but not prosecuted. Margret has subsequently forgiven him, saying that it is easier to live with things this way. Her husband was less suppo

RUMANGABO, NORTH KIVU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 28 NOVEMBER 2015: The funeral of ICCN Ranger Theodore Mbusa Matofali, 27, after a tragic car accident which left him dead from head injuries. Over 150 ICCN rangers have died in the course of their duties in Virunga National Park, most of those deaths have resulted from conflict. The Rangers have a dangerous job, often dealing with rebel movements, paramilitary Mai-Mai groups as well as the Congolese army all in the name of conservation in this contentious region of the DRC. (photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

LULIMBI, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, FEBRUARY 2012: Congolese Conservation Rangers deploy young bloodhounds for the first time in Virunga to investigate the corpse of a recently killed male elephant in Lulimbi, Eastern DRC, February 29, 2012. The elephant is suspected to have been killed by FDLR, a Rwandan Hutu led rebel group that has lived inside Virunga since 1995 when it fled Tutsi reprisals for the Rwandan Genocide. FDLR has consistently killed elephants in Virunga in order finance its campaign of violence with the proceeds from Ivory sales. FDLR often work in collaboration with the Congolese army, another element inside Virunga that makes conservation very difficult. The young dogs reacted with horror at the elephant corpse, their noses are estimated to be 3 million times more sensitive than a humans.

MBOKI, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC, 25 NOVEMBER 2014: Soldiers on patrol from the African Union Ugandan Armed forces, UPDF, base at Mboki, Central African Republic. The Ugandan contingent based here are focused on the aprehension of the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA, the notorious rebel group led by Joseph Kony which has terrorized citizens of Uganda, C.A.R, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo for the last 4 decades. Soldiers are seen crossing a river, a technique they have perfected with ropes despite the fact that many of the men cannot swim. Captain (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

LOME', TOGO, 29 JANUARY 2014: Containers with 4 tons of illegal ivory confiscated in January 2014 by the Togolese customs office from its new deep water port, Lome,' Togo. This ivory has been directly linked through DNA evidence to the elephant massacre that occured in Dzanga Bai, Central African Republic in 2013. That massacre was perpetrated by Seleka rebels who climbed the observation towers at the famous forest elephant gathering place in Dzanga Bai and gunned down the elephants with automatic weapons. The Seleka rebels would have used the proceeds from this ivory sale for some of the violence which has plagued C.A.R over much of 2013 and 2014. Togo has been viewed as a new opportunity by ivory smugglers with its new deep water port. Customs officers with new Container scanning technology have made the efforts of these smugglers more difficult. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic Magazine.)

ZAKOUMA NATIONAL PARK, CHAD: Rangers from a horse patrol group exhibit their riding skills as they return to base at Zakouma National Park, Chad. The horse patrols are the old guard of Zakouma's rangers and have seen a good deal of conflict in their time in the park. Zakouma lost nearly 75% of its elephants in the decade before 2011 due to raids by Janajaweed and Sudanese poachers, many of them from the Sudanese military. The president of Chad, Idris Deby, is a big supporter of the elephant of Zakouma and of its elephants. The herds here until recently used to be as large as 1000 animals all moving together, severe poaching over the last decade saw that number decimated and now only around 20% of the number remains. Since 2011 however there has been control over poaching and there has not been a single elephant poached in the last 2 years. The credit for that lies with these rangers and the new management of the park.

VICHUMBI, LAKE EDWARD, DR CONGO, 27 JULY 2013: Mai Mai thugs who tried to rob 5 fisherman had the tables turned on them when the fisherman knocked their single AK47 into the water and subdued them, Vuchimbi, Lake Edward, DR Congo, 27 July 2013. The thieves were handed over to a combined ICCN (Congolese Conservation force) and FARDC (Congolese Army force) troop and searched and arrested. The villagers depend on the lake for water, washing, the staple food of fishing, the transport of people and goods. Plans by Socco oil company to drill for oil in Lake Edward currently imperil all of those things. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

GARAMBA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRACTIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 12 NOVEMBER 2014: ICCN Ranger officer Mambo inside the ivory storage locker at Garamba National Park in the DR Congo. This ivory is the prize that notorious rebel group the Lord's Resistance Army, LRA, comes looking for in Garamba. Killing elephants for their ivory is an order direct from the LRA's sociopathic leader Joseph Kony, a man wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against Humanity. Rangers in Garamba find themselves up against a heavily armed LRA in their battle to save Garamba's elephant. As pressure has increased on Kony, the LRA has turned to Ivory as one means of sustaining themselves in their decades long bush war against the civilians of Uganda, Congo and the South Sudan/CAR region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic magazine.)

BUKIMA, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, EASTERN CONGO, JULY 2007: Conservation Rangers from an Anti-Poaching unit work with locals to evacuate the bodies of four Mountain Gorrillas killed in mysterious circumstances in the park, Virunga National Park, Eastern Congo, 24 July 2007. A Silver-Back Alpha male, the leader of the group was shot, three females were also killed. Two of the females had babies and the other was pregnant. The two babies were not found and it is thought that they will have died of stress and dehydration. The motivation for the killing is not known but it is suspected that there are political motivations. The local illegal Charcoal industry clashes with conservation efforts in this very poor area and Rangers have been threatened, tortured and killed as a result of this clash of political and economic wills. Over 100 Rangers have been killed in their efforts to protect the Gorrillas of Virunga, one of the world's most endangered species. The Congolese Rangers in this particular group are working with Wildlife Direct, a Conservation organisation. The Rangers receive a salary based on donations to Wildlife Direct and perform one of the most dangerous jobs in the world of wildlife conservation. The DRC has the highest toll of human casualties of any country since the second world war, a figure in the region of 4.6 million dead as a result of war and resultant displacement, disease, starvation and ongoing militia violence. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Getty Images for Newsweek.)

GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 22 JANUARY 2015: Benadete Kahindo, 32, seen with her eldest daughter Gift and 3 of her seven children. Benadete's husband was ICCN ranger Hassan Sebuyori, 34. In 2012 Hassan was targeted, killed and beheaded by FDLR, a notorious Hutu led rebel group operating inside Virunga National Park since the time of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. Benadete was forced to flee from her home after continued FDLR threats and a year later her eldest daughter Gift was raped at age 14 by the M23 rebels, a group who claimed to be opposed to FDLR. Gift gave birth to a child after the rape. Benadete's husband Hassan had been effective in stopping FDLR's bushmeat trade inside Virunga. They were angry with him for this and ambushed the ICCN vehicle in which he was travelling. FDLR dragged a wounded Hassan away with them and his headless body was discovered not far from the ambush location. His head was not recovered and his body was left as a warning to the other rangers. Benadete and her children survive on funds from the Virunga Widows fund, something dependant on donations and not guaranteed for the future. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

TRANSKEI COAST, SOUTH AFRICA-NOVEMBER 2003: Xhosa boys undergoing the circumcision ceremony walk back to their huts at the end of the day. Every Xhosa male must undergo this ceremony which begins with a unanethatised circumcision and then explores a month long oral history of the Xhosa people. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

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KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Maria, a drug addict and sex worker, entertains a client in a room she rents in a house from an old lady, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. Maria uses drugs on a daily basis and sees many men every week but remains HIV negative. She claims she need the money to support herself, her habit and her 9 year old daughter. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Maria, a drug addict and sex worker, entertains a client in a room she rents in a house from an old lady, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. Maria uses drugs on a daily basis and sees many men every week but remains HIV negative. She claims she need the money to support herself, her habit and her 9 year old daughter. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

RIFIJI, SELOUS, TANZANIA, 4 MARCH 2013: Yusuf Shabani Difika, 41, lost both his arms to a lion attack on a fishing trip on the border of Selous National Park, Tanzania. The lion attacked Yusuf and his arms were shredded beyond recovery as he attempted to fend off the animal. He says the lion bit him multiple times on his arms, exposing his bones and ripping off the flesh. Yusuf was rescued by village friends who drove the lion off with sticks and machettes. Yusuf was rushed to a local clinic and then transported to a hospital where doctors had no choice but to amputate what was left of his arms. Yusuf has two children, aged 5 and 3, he has lost the ability to work and is entirely reliant on his father, his uncle and his cousins as well as the kindness of his village for his survival. He says the hardest thing is that he cannot clean himself or go to the bathroom without assistance. His uncle bathes him on a regular basis and his father and cousins help him to dress, eat and drink. Lion attacks on the rural people who farm close to Selous National Park are not uncommon. There is a degree of hypocrisy to the West's expectation that these people should live with lions as if there is no danger. They do not benefit from the wildlife in Selous and they live in danger as there are no fences to the Park and the range of the lions often extends outside of the park. They are especially in vulnerable during the harvest period. Wild Bush pigs are attracted by young maize and rice crops and so people sleep in their fields in order to protect their crops. Rural people are especially exposed to lion attacks at this time. The lions are attracted to the bushpig presence, the pigs are hard to catch and the human beings are close at hand, often completely vulnerable and easy to subdue.

NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: Professional hunters fool around with a dead captive bred lioness after a bow hunt on a game farm close to the South Africa/Botswana border region, October 19, 2012. Two systems for the hunts exist in two different provinces of South Africa. One practice sees the lion released for a minimal 96 hours into a 3000-hectare area before the hunt can begin. The other practice sees the lion released for 3 months into a minimum 3000-hectare area before it can be hunted. The lioness in these images was released 96 hours ahead of the hunt into the area. Recent global research points to the fact that hunting and breeding programs are necessary components for the survival of lions into the future. These practices go some way towards lessening pressure on wild lion populations as well as preserving a strong lion DNA base and a future repository for lions for areas where they have been decimated. The hunting industry is also a strong employer in Africa, with over 1.4 million square kilometers given over to hunting concessions. This is a landmass more than 20% higher than that given over to Wildlife Conservation areas. More than 18000 hunters come to Africa every year and the money high-end dangerous game hunting brings to the continent goes some way to preserving the land mass set aside for hunting.

NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: A captive bred lion is skinned after a hunt close to the South Africa/Botswana border, October 19, 2012. Two systems for the hunts exist in two different provinces of South Africa. One practice sees the lion released for a minimal 96 hours into a 3000-hectare area before the hunt can begin. The other practice sees the lion released for 3 months into a minimum 3000-hectare area before it can be hunted. The lioness in these images was released 96 hours ahead of the hunt into the area. Recent global research points to the fact that hunting and breeding programs are necessary components for the survival of lions into the future. These practices go some way towards lessening pressure on wild lion populations as well as preserving a strong lion DNA base and a future repository for lions for areas where they have been decimated. The hunting industry is also a strong employer in Africa, with over 1.4 million square kilometers given over to hunting concessions. This is a landmass more than 20% higher than that given over to Wildlife Conservation areas. More than 18000 hunters come to Africa every year and the money high-end dangerous game hunting brings to the continent goes some way to preserving the land mass set aside for hunting.

NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA, OCTOBER 2012: Over 40 carcasses from lion hunts hang up to dry in a vehicle yard on a farm in the North West Province, South Africa, October 19, 2012. These bones come from lions killed in legal hunts. The dealer requires a local permit for Nature Conservation South Africa as well as a Cites export permit for this trade. There is a large Asian market for these bones, which are crushed and used in Asian medicines and also in Lion Wine. Lion bone has become more popular in Asian culture as a result of the increasing rarity of the Tiger. Tiger parts have long been a part of Asian traditional medicine, but with less than 3000 tigers left in the wild, lion bone is becoming increasingly popular. Conservationists argue that this increasing demand for lion bone will severely impact wild lion populations. Hunters and breeders argue that they can easily meet the demand and that a legal trade means wild lion populations as well as tiger populations will be saved as captive breeding and hunting of those lions can meet the demand. Prices for a lion skeleton vary, from $1200 to $10, 000. South Africa is the lion hunting and breeding capital of the world, with an estimated 500 plus lions hunted every year and the largest breeding programs in the world.

MPIMBWE, WESTERN TANZANIA, OCTOBER 2012: Lion Dancers from the Sakuma tribe perform the story of their lion killing outside a village in rural Mpimbwe, Western Tanzania, October 27, 2012. Lion dancers are men who have killed a lion in defense of their cattle or their village. They are a deeply superstitious people who believe that once they have killed a lion they have to become a lion dancer for 3 to 5 years to avoid going mad. They spend a year or longer preparing with the local witchdoctor and then go from village to village seeing their relatives and dancing while collecting tribute for their bravery. In a time when lion are very scarce in the region, this practice is actively discouraged by conservation organizations and it is slowly dying out. It is illegal in Tanzania. When the dancers appear in the villages, they are often praised and given money, goats and even sometimes a small cow. It is therefore something that some young men aspire to, even going as far as to venture into the local Katavi National Park in pursuit of a lion.

AMBOSELLI ECOSYSTEM, KENYA, 25 FEBRUARY 2013: Images of "Lion Guardians" using telemetry to locate lions in the ecosystem outside of Amboselli National Park, Kenya, 25 February 2013. Lion guardians is a conservation program which recruits leading Maasai men, many of whom are former lion killers, into a system which monitors lions, confers a sense of ownership and pride in them and forms a Maasai vanguard which seeks to prevent other Maasai from hunting lions in retribution for cattle killing. Retaliatory and traditional spearing by Maasai warriors is the greatest threat to the survival of lions in Maasailand. the Lion Guardians program is unique in employing the traditional enemy of lions to conserve rather than kill them. The Guardians monitor spoor, use telemetry devices to track collared lions, and collect dna samples for analysis. They have also named all the lions in their area and recently produced identity cards which further reinforce notions of lion identity within Maasai communities.

OSAKA, JAPAN, 19 OCTOBER 2014: Sensei Fumon Tanaka, 73, Samurai master and descendent of a long line of Samurai warriors in Japan. He is seen at a temple complex in Osaka, Japan. Sensei Tanaka is somewhat controversial amongst the pursuants of the Samurai arts in that he embraces the media and has appeared in films, documentaries and commercials all showcasing his Samurai martial arts skills. This is controversial in Samurai culture as many pursuants believe in secrecy and humbleness and not in ostentatious display.

SHIMIZU KU, SHIZUOKA CITY, TOKYO, 16 OCTOBER 2014: Advanced students practise sword skills in the dojo of Master Sensei Yoshimitsu (Kagehiro) Katsuse, a master of all 18 of the Samurai arts. This dojo dates back to the 16th century and is one of very few pure Samurai dojos that survive today.

KONO, SIERRA LEONE-OCTOBER 2003: A 12 year old former "bush-wife" sex-slave of the rebel group the R.U.F. This girl was taken from her village at 10 years old and forced into sexual servitude by the rebels. When she attempted to escape they used battery acid to burn off her breast as an example to the other slaves. PHOTO BY BRENT STIRTON/GETTY IMAGES.

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Navajo Punk rock band Sihasin is seen with their horse Moonshadow in a canyon in Cameron, Arizona. Sihasin comes from a long tradition of protest music and expouses traditional Navajo values to their audience. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Claysun Benally with his horse in Cameron, Arizona. Claysun is a strong believer in traditional Navajo values and along with his father keeps several horses on their property in Flagstaff. The Navajo have a long relationship with the wild horse, a relationship characterized by gentleness and agreement rather than breaking the horses spirti to the will of man. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

WINDOW ROCK, ARIZONA, 11 APRIL 2014: Senior police officer in the Navajo police Dana Dean Tome arrests a suspect on the streets of WindowRock, Arizona. This man was later found to be innocent. No alcohol is allowed on the reservation and it is one of the many obstacles faced by the understaffed, underfinanced Navajo Police. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro.)

PINON, NAVAJO NATION, ARIZONA, 5 APRIL 2014: Children play on a horse training farm close to the economically depressed area of Pinon, Arizona. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Rpeortage for Le Figaro.)

CAMERON, ARIZONA, 16 APRIL 2014: Jones Benally, a famous medicine man, dances the Navajo Hoop dance in a small canyon in the badlands of Cameron, Arizona. The hoop dance is traditionally performed at the end of a grueling nine day ceremony and is a form of storytelling dance representing various animals, symbols and storytelling elements, all representing the never ending circle of life for the Navajo. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Le Figaro Magazine.)

TETE, MOZAMBIQUE, NOVEMBER 2013: Victor Pirez, 28, performs demining operations in the Chinzunga hills close to Cabora Bassa, Mozambique, 18 November 2013. Victor has been a demined for 5 years and says that his grandfather was killed by a landmine in this same region while walking to his farm. Victor's team cleared 15 landmines on this day and detonated them as usual before they left for the day. Victor is also the paramedic for his team and carries a major trauma kit with him. Victor makes $260 a month doing this job, considered a good salary in Mozambique. The HALO deminers in this area are dealing with landmines laid in the 1970's by the Portugese military who were attempting to defend the vital Cabora Bassa Hydro-electric dam, a strategic target for the Frelimo rebels at the time. Today, over 40 years later, these mines still maim and kill the local populace and prevent them utilizing vital agricultural land. This scene was photographed at demining operations close to the HALO Demining camp in the mountains of Chinzunga. Mozambique was one of the most heavily landmined countries in the war, both from its 11 year long War of Libertation as well as its conflicts with both South Africa and Rhodesia for sheltering both the ANC and Mugabe's Zanla freedom fighters. Halo has cleared over 22,700 anti personnel mines and reclaimed of 500, 000 square meters of land for the local populace. HALO runs both mechinical and manual operations. Mozambique is pushing hard to meet its donor obligations to be land-mine free by the end of 2014, under the mandate of the Ottawa convention on the land mine.

BARRIO CHIUIJO, WEST OF CHIMOIO, MOZAMBIQUE/ZIMBABWE BORDER, 19 NOVEMBER 2013: Bonafacio Mazin, 57, works his vegetable field with perfect balance despite losing one of his legs in 1987 to a landmine laid by Rhodesian forces in the seventies, Mozambique/Zimbabwe Border, West Chimoio, 19 November 2013. Bonafacio was walking home from farm work in Zimbabwe when the incident occured. Mozambique had very few jobs at the time and many people were killed in their way in and out of Zimbabwe by these landmines. "As a man, this is very bad, I cannot find a job, I work hard on the farm but I cannot do enough work. This landmine has reduced me to a beggar." This region is one of the most densely landmined in the world, effectively cutting off 50% of all arable land for these villages. The landmines were laid by the Rhodesean Military to protect against ZANLA freedom fighters in Rhodesia's war of liberation. They have been in place since the early 1970's and Norweigan Peoples Agency have been demining the area for some time. They hope to finish by the end of 2014 but that may be optimistic given the recent discovery of new minefields and resurgent violence from opposition party RENAMO. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for the ICRC.)

MOTOLLA CITY, MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE, 25 NOVEMBER 2013: Double amputee Jose Sabonete,54, a former FRELIMO soldier, is seen bathing at his impoverished home in Motolla City, Maputo, Mozambique, 25 November 2013. Jose lost his legs to a fragmentation landmine while serving as a soldier in the war. He and his 5 children exist today on a $100 government pension but he receives no other help for his condition. He is seen bathing in the toilet area of his home. The amputees in this image are all a result of landmine blasts. These veterans receive a $50 pension every month from government but rely on the kindness of their extended families to survive. Most have only brokendown prosthetics in dire need of maintenance as well as crutches that are on their last legs. Most of these men were injured by landmines in their fight against RENAMO, who were eventually defeated by FRELIMO who today makes up the leading party in the Mozambique government.

MOTOLLA CITY, MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE, 24 NOVEMBER 2013: Jose Magleso Nalabo, 48, was blinded while soldiering for FRELIMO during Mozambique's brutal civile war, he is seen outside his squatter housing in abandoned accomodation in Motolla City, Maputo, Mozambique, 24 November 2013. Jose was blinded when the soldier in front of him trod on a fragmentation landmine, killing himself and blinding Jose. 25 families live in these accomodations, the majority are former FRELIMO fighters from the Mozambique civil war. Most of those are amputees as a result of landmine blasts. These veterans receive a $50 pension every month from government but rely on the kindness of their extended families to survive. Most have only brokendown prosthetics in dire need of maintenance as well as crutches that are on their last legs. Most of these men were injured by landmines in their fight against RENAMO, who were eventually defeated by FRELIMO who today makes up the leading party in the Mozambique government.

AKHAND JYOTI EYE HOSPITAL, PATNA, BIHAR, INDIA, 10 SEPTEMBER 2014: Eye surgery patients recover in a mass ward at Akhand Jyoti Eye Hospital, the third largest eye hospital in India. This hospital performed over 65 000 eye surgeries last year, often averaging over 400 surgeries a day. They cater to the poorest of the poor in the poorest state in India. Over 2 thirds of their surgeries are free for the poor.

WEST BENGAL, INDIA, 15 SEPTEMBER 2014: A social worker looks after a young impoverished child who has just had surgery to correct congenital cataracts. This social worker has moved the boy into his own home for this delicate recovery process as the boy's father is a drunk and his labourer mother struggles to make ends meet. As a result he has not been treated for his cataracts. A teacher network at school notified this social worker and as a result of his efforts the child has succesful surgery at an Ashram hospital a few hours away. Most of these villagers are so poor that transport to a hospital is not possible, let alone surgery.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted in the desert on a training excercise close to a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic)

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement of Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and resource ownership in Niger's growing Uranium and natural resources, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 31 Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands.

TAZERZEIT, AIR MOUNTAINS, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of M.N.J, The Movement for Justice in Niger, a Tuareg led rebellion against the Niger government for reasons of perceived discrimination, social injustice and natural resource ownership, 5 April 2009. The rebels are depicted standing on the grounds of a former school establised for Tuareg Nomad children. It sits on the North-eastern front of the Air mountain range near the rebel main base at Mt Tamgak. The school was attacked by the Niger Army in their search for rebels in August 2007, the teacher was threatened in front of the childten and three elderly men were reportedly executed by a Niger Army captain. Shortly afterwards the rebel counter attack secured 30 odd Niger Army hostages, one of whom still remains in Rebel hands. In retaliation the Niger army attacked the school in July 2008 by attack helicopter and killed 17 MNJ rebels. The children at the school have since been moved to a safer location near Arlit Niger. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

ZAGADO, NORTHERN NIGER, APRIL 2009: Images of MNJ breakaway faction leader and Tuareg Rissa ag Boula, a former Niger Army commander and Minister of Tourism photographed in Zagado, Nothern Niger, 7 April 2009. Boula is now on the run himself from the French as well as Niger forces. He has gone back to his own people and joined the Tuareg rebellion although it is under some scepticism from other MNJ leaders. He has a reputation as a fierce fighter and is seen with his sniper rifle. (Photo by Brent Stirton/National Geographic.)

SANDTON, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 8 DECEMBER 2013: People pay tribute to the life of Nelson Mandela at Mandela Square in Sandton City shopping center, Johannesburg, 8 December, 2013. There has been a massive response the death of Nelson Mandela across South Africa, as people remember an icon of the country. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

QUNU, EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA, 14 DECEMBER 2013: A man waits for the Nelson Mandela funeral procession to pass, Qunu, South Africa, 14 December 2014. An icon of democracy, Mandela was buried at his family home in Qunu after passing away on the 5th December 2013. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

SOWETO, SOUTH AFRICA, 10 DECEMBER 2013: Mandela supporters wait for public transport in the rain on their way to FNB stadium for a day of comemoration for Nelson Mandela, the iconic Freedom Fighter of the ANC, Soweto, South Africa, 10 December 2013. Mandela died on the 5th of December 2013. (Photo by Brent Stirton/© 2013 Cable News Network. A Time Warner Company. All Rights Reserved.)

HILLBROW, JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA, 7 DECEMBER 2013: African Christians say passionate prayers on a hilltop overlooking Johannesburg, 7 December 2013. There are prayers all over the country at this time as people mourn the loss of Nelson Mandela, an icon of freedom and democracy who passed away on the 5 of December 2013 after a long struggle with illness. (Photo by Brent Stirton/ Reportage by Getty Images.)

THRISSUR, KERALA, INDIA, 19 APRIL 2013: Mahouts clean an elephant in a private home enclosure, Thrissur, Kerala, India 19 April 2013. This elephant belongs to Sundar Menon, a fuel supply magnate who runs Sungroup international. His is one of over 50 elephants that will attend the largest elephant festival in Kerala. These 50 elephants attend this festival amidst a crowd of over 500 000 people. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant is delivered by truck to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

PARAVOOR, KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant festival at Paravoor, Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in Must have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KERALA, INDIA, 15 APRIL 2013: An elephant walks past two nervous women on its way to attend a festival in Kerala, India 15 April 2013. Elephants have become increasingly popular at religious festivals in Kerala, for centuries they have been used by the Hindu faithful because of their role in Hinduism and also as a symbol of power. In recent years both Christian and Islamic factions have introduced elephants into their festival. As a result these elephant have become heavily overused during the festival period. They have little rest, are surrounded by a roaring crowd, loud music and concussive fireworks. Elephants that are in mhust have also been used, despite their increased aggression in this period. Accidents and killings have been commonplace, panicked and aggressive elephants have killed a number of spectators, as recently as January 2013 an elephant killed 3 woman spectators yet was allowed to continue performing. The elephant owners charge large fees for appearances and there are devout, fanatical followings for individual elephants. Despite the danger, people continue to flock to these events. Elephants are typically wild animals who have been caught and broken, then trained to obey commands. Elephants in Kerala spend their whole lives chained, living in small spaces like open air prisons and performing manual labor or appearing at these festivals. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

ALAPURA DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA 17 APRIL 2013: Lakshmi Alumparambil and her husband Sreedharan mourn the loss of their daugher Sudheena in January 2013 to a panicked elephant in a temple festival in Kerala, 17 April 2013. Sudheena and her father were attending a festival where 7 elephants were crammed into a temple space traditionally used for three. The mahout was not paying attention and the elephant was not chained properly, it panicked in the crowd and lashed out and people stampeded, fleeing the temple. Sudheena was trapped against the wall and the elephant crushed her head. She died on the way to hospital. Her parents tell of how she loved elephants, making scrapbooks of pictures and seeing them as often as she could. She was 21 years old and was studying English Literature at the time of her death. She was 20 years old. Elephants are hired for these festivals for very large sums, no-one has been held responsible yet for this attack. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for NY Times Magazine.)

VARANASSI, INDIA, 2 OCTOBER 2013: Kumkum Chowdhary, 12, plays by herself on the roof of a small donor hospital in Varanassi, India. Kumkum is a victim of severe burns from a gas fire. India has one of the highest incidents of severe burns per capita yet has very few proper burns units throughout the country. Kumkum was severely burned when a naive boy in her village asked to hold a candle while he tried to transfer gas from one canister to another. He promised Kumkum a sweet if she would help him. The resultant explosion burnt her over most of her body, the boy was uninjured and ran away. Kumkum has been in this condition for more than three years with only basic medical care. Her parents are poor people and they cannot afford the necessary travel let alone medical care she requires. This hospital in Varanassi is one of the very few the poor can access. It is based on the efforts of a single doctor, a plastic surgeon who has made it his priority to serve the poor who would otherwise never be able to access this kind of surgery. Kumkum will first have her hands repaired to offer some use and then her face and body will be attended to. It will require at least a year of surgeries and recovery before she will be able to lead a normal life. This recovery is not something she would ever be able to access without the help of this unique facility.

VARANASI, INDIA, 8 SEPTEMBER 2014: Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh operates on burn victim Ragini Kumari, 10, who was badly burnt by a Kerosene fire when she was 2 years old, she is one of over 6 million people burnt in India every year. Ragini has suffered constrictions of her neck and shoulders and lived in a permanently cramped and restricted postion ever since. Her family is deeply impoverished and like millions of India's poor she has been unable to secure the necessary surgery. Renowned plastic surgeon to the poor, Dr Subodh Singh, found Ragini at a burns camp he held in her area and has arranged for her to attend his clinic where he performs free surgery for the poorest of the poor of India. She is seen at her home before surgery and on her journey to his clinic in Varnasi, India. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

MIKENO, EASTERN DR CONGO, 8 APRIL 2009: Local villagers help to evacuate the body of a female mountain gorilla who has been shot by poachers. It is believed that her baby had been taken by these poachers so they could try to sell it to the highest bidder. Mountain Gorillas are extremely rare, with just over 700 in the world today. They exist in the Virunga ranges of DR Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. The group in DR Congo numbers just over 300 and their region is occupied by the M23 rebel group, formerly known as CNDP. Despite the conflict in the region, the gorillas remain, a fragile, threatened group that also have poachers and human encroachment to fear. The Senkwekwe Center is the only facility for critically endangered orphan mountain gorillas in the world. It is located in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, about 50 kilometers from the border town of Goma. Each gorilla at the center has suffered a traumatic poaching experience, injuries from snares, and/or losing their mothers in brutal killings. These baby gorillas were kept in horrifying conditions, close to death, until their rescue by Congolese Conservation forces. Now they are looked after by a dedicated group of conservation ranger caretakers. The center is located in a large forested enclosure with a night house and veterinarian facilities. The caretakers are with the newest orphan Ihirwe 24/7. They sleep in the same room, often holding the new orphan like fathers would a child. They interact like a family, the gorillas displaying extraordinary behavior towards their caretakers indicative of a loving and trusting relationship. In early 2009, the rangers and warden of Virunga National Park re-gained control of the gorillas sector of Virunga National Park following the takeover by General Nkunda and his CNDP rebel army. At that time awareness was raised about two young orphan mountain gorillas, Ndeze and Ndakasi, and their living conditions in a small compound in the city of Goma, full of poll

RUMANGABO, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: Andre, 39, a self described "gorilla mother" looks after 4 orphaned gorillas who were rescued from various horrific circumstances and brought into care by the staff of Virunga National Park, DRC, 2 March 2012. Andre thinks of these gorillas as his own children and even describes bringing his children to see them as showing them their brothers and sisters. Andre lives with the Gorillas 24/7 with the exception of a few days off to visit his own family. Andre is an ICCN Congolese Conservation ranger and has cared for orphaned and rescued gorillas since 2003.

RUMANGABO, VIRUNGA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 6 AUGUST 20013: Images from the Senkekwe Orphan Gorilla project as caretakers interact in the early morning with a new orphan mountain gorilla Ihirwe at ICCN headquarters, Rumangabo, DRC, 6 August 2013. It is suspected that this orphan was taken by soldiers who probably killed the mother to get the baby. When they were unable to sell it, the orphan was abandoned and the conservation rangers heard and rescued it. Wounds from a rope were evident on its chest and back, it is slowly recovering now as it lives full time with caretakers who also sleep in the enclosure with the orphan. There are a number of other orphans at the center who will be introduced to the new baby once it has been through quarantine and is accustomed to its new surroundings.

RUMANGABO, VIRUNGA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, 7 AUGUST 20013: New Mountan gorilla orphan Ihirwe clings to her caretaker at Senkekwe Mountain Gorilla Orphanage at ICCN headquarters, Rumangabo, DRC, 7 August 2013. It is suspected that this orphan was taken by soldiers who probably killed the mother to get the baby. When they were unable to sell it, the orphan was abandoned and the conservation rangers heard and rescued it. Wounds from a rope were evident on its chest and back, it is slowly recovering now as it lives full time with caretakers who also sleep in the enclosure with the orphan. There are a number of other orphans at the center who will be introduced to the new baby once it has been through quarantine and is accustomed to its new surroundings. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

RUMANGABO, EASTERN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: Andre, 39, a self described "gorilla mother" looks after 4 orphaned gorillas who were rescued from various horrific circumstances and brought into care by the staff of Virunga National Park, DRC, 2 March 2012. Andre thinks of these gorillas as his own children and even describes bringing his children to see them as showing them their brothers and sisters. Andre lives with the Gorillas 24/7 with the exception of a few days off to visit his own family. Andre is an ICCN Congolese Conservation ranger and has cared for orphaned and rescued gorillas since 2003. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)

AMBOSELI, KENYA, MAY 2011: Undercover Kenya Wildlife Services Ranger detusk a bull elephant killed by a spear in the Amboseli ecosystem in the shadow of Amboseli, Kenya, May 29, 2011. The elephant was killed by a single spear stroke close to the spine which penetrated deeply enough to cause massive internal bleeding. It is not known whether this was a poaching attempt or whether this was a case of human elephant conflict with the animal in the crops of local Masaai. The animal was detusked and the ivory sent to the KWS HQ in Amboseli National Park. KWS has the mandate to protect wildlife in Kenya but lack the manpower and resources. Organisations like Big Life are the private sector arm of KWS in the 2 million acre Amboseli ecosystem, working alongside them to supply manpower, vehicles, funding, information networks and aircraft to practise effective conservation in the region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

AMBOSELI, KENYA, MAY 2011: Undercover Kenya Wildlife Services Ranger detusk a bull elephant killed by a spear in the Amboseli ecosystem in the shadow of Amboseli, Kenya, May 29, 2011. The elephant was killed by a single spear stroke close to the spine which penetrated deeply enough to cause massive internal bleeding. It is not known whether this was a poaching attempt or whether this was a case of human elephant conflict with the animal in the crops of local Masaai. The animal was detusked and the ivory sent to the KWS HQ in Amboseli National Park. KWS has the mandate to protect wildlife in Kenya but lack the manpower and resources. Organisations like Big Life are the private sector arm of KWS in the 2 million acre Amboseli ecosystem, working alongside them to supply manpower, vehicles, funding, information networks and aircraft to practise effective conservation in the region. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

CHONDO, VIRUNGA NATIONAL PARK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, MARCH 2012: ICCN Congolese conservation rangers and members of the Congolese army capture illegal fisherman, Chondo, Virunga, 12 March 2012. Many of these fisherman are involved in this activity due to poverty, others are there to supply the rebel FDLR group with food. The FDLR are the hardcore Hutu's who were behind the Rwandan massacre of 1994. The fish stocks in the lake are just beginning to recover from the war, thousands of hippos were slaughtered to feed militia groups and this devastated fish stocks. This delicate recovery is what the ICCN rangers are trying to protect. This will allow a viable and sustainable fishing industry to be generated at Lake Edward, for the benefit of all. Since the FDLR fled into Virunga after the Genocide, they have sown mayhem and destruction in Virunga. 140 Rangers have died defending Virunga since 1994, many at the hands of the FDLR rebels. There are regular contacts between the Rangers and FDLR, usually resulting in injuries and deaths on either side. The Rangers, with the help of the FARDC, are winning this battle but at a heavy price. In 2011 eleven Rangers died fighting the FDLR. Virunga remains one of the most dangerous places in the world to practise conservation. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for GEO magazine.)

BOUBA NDJIDA NATIONAL PARK, NORTH CAMEROON, APRIL 2012: The largest mass killing of elephants in recent history took place at Bouba Ndjida National Park in North Cameroon close to the Chad and Central African Republic Borders from January through March 2012. Eye witnesses have so far located 340 carcasses, the ivory poachers themselves told local villagers they have killed over 650 elephants in their hunt for Ivory over the 500 000 hectare region. There has yet to be a proper aerial and ground survey of the dead elephants and the rainy season will make that difficult. The Poachers, numbering over 100 men, were mounted on horseback, led by 6 light skinned North Sudanese men and armed with RPG's, grenades, Light Machine Guns and AK47's. They were in two main groups, with a number of reconnaisance units of 4 men locating the elephants then bringing in a larger force to kill big groups. Intelligence indicates that many of the hunters came from Chad and were led by these Sudanese men. These facts have emerged from a number of eye witness acccounts, mainly by French professional hunters who saw the horsman in the Park and local hunting concessions. They had the appearence and attitude of Janjaweed fighters from the South Sudan Darfur and Chadian conflicts and were disciplined, unafraid, arrogant and extremely efficient hunters. The elephants were herded together by teams of 4 to 8 riders who then decimated them with AK47 fire, killing all the elephants they could find, including babies with no ivory. Groups as large as 53 have been gunned down together, with sections as large as 14 elephants lying within touching distance of each other. These horseman came into the area over the Chadian border, evidence of early carcasses suggests that they may have been in the park as early as October 2011. The main force began their hunt in earnest from January through to approximately 8 March 2012. It is believed there was collaboration with local poachers in this hunt as well as an as

MANYANI, TSAVO, KENYA, JULY 2011: The burning of 5 tons of trafficked Ivory recovered from a seizure in Singapore in 2002, Manyani, Tsavo, Kenya, 20 July 2011. The ivory burnt here was originally from Malawi and Zambia, 5 tons of the original 6.4 tons were burnt and the remainder will supposedly be sent back to the 2 countries of origin, Malawi and Zambia. It was burnt in Kenya under the auspices of the LATF, the Lusaka Task Force, a group of affiliated countries who are supposed to form a common front against wildlife crime in Africa. The ivory burning is regarded with some cynicism from conservation quarters, no Kenyan ivory was added to the pyre, despite stocks in excess of 65 tons and their appropriation of the PR value of this event. The Kenyans response is to say that the disposal of public assets is a parlimentary affair, with due process of the law. The minimum time it would take for this is 3 months, more than enough time for Kenya to have participated if it so chose. Wildlife crime in Kenya still remains a perceived minor crime, with a maximum fine of only $430 for the killing of an elephant for its tusks. In conservation circles this illustrates a lack of comittment on the part of the KWS to truly stamp out the illegal ivory trade within Kenya. The overwhelming perception is that KWS appropriated this event, with minimum participation from the other LATF countries, and no credit was given to the Environmental Impact Agency despite the fact that it was their intelligence operation which resulted in the seizure in the first place. KWS also attempted to charge all foreign media a fee of $700 to attend the burn, despite them being invited guests to the burning and an indispensable source of publicity for Kenya's supposed anti-ivory trade stance. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic.)

SURIN, THAILAND, NOVEMBER 2011: Luang Poo Bru Ba Dhammamunee, head abbot of Wat Suan Paa Phutthasatharn Supraditme thee Temple, photographed in Surin Elephant Village in Surin, Thailand, November 9th, 2011. The monk buys his Ivory carvings of Bhudist icons for resale purposes to his followers. He commented openly on the presence in Thailand of illegally imported African ivory and advised on how to get it into Thailand past customs authorities. He also spoke of how senior memember of the Thai parliment are behind the illegal industry. He spoke enthusiastically of business opportunities if we could get him illegal African ivory, despite his public relations campaign as a carer of elephant in Thailand. The Thai legal system has many loopholes as a result of the domestic ivory situation and Thailand is suspected of being a major transit country for illegal African ivory as a result. The sale of religious ivory icons is a big part of the domestic trade while illegal ivory and elephant goods from both Thailand and Africa regularly make their way to China. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

BEIJING, CHINA, NOVEMBER 2011: Scenes from China National Arts and Crafts Corporation - Ivory Carving factory, Beijing, China, November 17. Started in 2009 after China's big African Ivory purchase, this is supposedly the world's largest Ivory carving facility, employing more than 20 carvers and carving an alleged 750 kg of raw ivory annually. The director of the factory stated that the factory was started as a State initiative against the demise of the Ivory carving industry. State owned, it is a clear indication of the Chinese government's investment into the future of the Ivory carving trade. This factory also carves a ton of Mammoth Ivory every year. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for National Geographic Magazine.)

KIEV, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: A prisoner n the last stages of full-blown Aids who has been rushed to the Kiev Aids Center from prison receives compassionate care from a doctor while chained to the bed, The Kiev Aids Center in Kiev, Ukraine, 25 August 2011. This facility is one of two in Ukriane and deals with many drug addicts and other difficult Aids infected people. There are strict rules and conditions in the wards which staff claim are neccesary to protect them from aggressive, manic patients. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

POLTAVA, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Scenes inside Poltava Tuberculosis clinic, a facility with insufficent resources which is the only facility for Tuberculosis patients in Poltava, Ukraine, 26 August 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

KHARKOV, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: An HIV+ addict who has lost his lower jawbone to the corrosive effects of "Krokodil," a deadly new Ephedrine based Amphetamine drug photographed in a small apartment in a housing project in Kharkov, Ukraine, 28 August 2011. This drug originated in Russia and has quickly moved to Ukraine. It has a corrosive effect on the human body, eating away at the flesh of needle entry points and corroding bones in the body. Mass unemployment and perceived government apathy mean that many young people turn to drugs to escape the fatalism of their lives. As a result many are infected with HIV through needle use and unprotected sex. Ukraine is the most Aids infected nation in Europe.

KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: HIV + drug addict Sacha bathes his mother every day in their small apartment in Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 31 August 2011. He takes care of her, washing her clothes, feeding her and makes sure she is cared for. Sacha is worried as he moves into full blown Aids that there will be no-one to look after his elderly mother. The reason his case is so worriesome is because there have been no new admissions allowed to the list of Anti Retro-Viral therapy recipients for those people living with full blown Aids in Ukraine since the end of 2010. Sacha is not on that list and is inelegible for treatment as a result. Nine months later in September 2011 all those people who have become critically ill but are not on the old list of ART recipients are living under a death sentence as their immune systems collapse. There is a new Government in Ukraine and the Ministry of Health controls all ART (Anti-RetroViral treatment,) medicine. As this business is put out to tender to the various pharmaceutical companies, a series of ignorances, bribes and corrupt practises hinder this vital service from coming into being in time to provide life-saving ART therapy to those who are dying without it. (Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage for Getty Images.)

KRYVYI RIG, UKRAINE, AUGUST 2011: Addicts undergo sleep therapy during the drug detox program at Psycho Neurological Dispensary, Kryvyi Rig, Ukraine, 31 August 2011. This program has good success in getting patients back to a pysiological level where they can receive counselling for their addictions. (photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images.)

POLTAVA, UKRAINE - AUGUST 12 2005: Tanya, 29, a sex-worker and drug user who is HIV+. She has an eleven year old son and lives with 5 other sex workers in a small apartment in a poor neighbourhood. She used to weigh 100 kilograms but has wasted away to nothing. She has severe septicemia on her legs and a rampant addiction. Tanya tells that sometimes in the past wealthy men would seek her out for sex as part of a bizarre "Russian roulette with Aids" scenario, where they would have unprotected sex and dice with the odds of contracting HIV. Tanya died one month after this photograph was taken. Ukraine has the highest HIV rates in Europe today.

HANOI, VIETNAM, OCTOBER 2011: Pham, 32, a man born without eyes due to Agent Orange contamination which affected his father while he fought as a soldier in the Vietnam war, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 10, 2011. (Photo by Brent Stirton.)

Klerksdorp, South Africa, 25 March 2011: A man holds up a large Rhino horn in the African bush, the horn has just been removed from a White Rhino in order to save it from poaching, Klerksdorp, South Africa, 25 March 2011. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold on the international market. 100 grams of Rhino horn in Vietnam sells for $2500 to locals and over $8500 to foreign buyers, these are the prices consistently offered to our investigative team in meetings with 5 seperate dealers across the country. The demand for Rhino horn is now fueled by a newly wealthy Asian middle and upper class who can now afford the substance which was previously only the province of the wealthy. The horn is used overwhelmingly as an anti-fever, anti-toxin medication, with thousands of years of cultural belief behind the practise. This is despite the fact that Rhino horn is now an illegal substance across Asia. South Africa alone has lost more than 400 Rhino to illegal poaching incidents in 2011, to say nothing of those lost to legal hunting. There are less than 16000 rhino left in the world and at this compounded rate the Rhino is racing to extinction.

SAVE' VALLEY CONSERVANCY, MASVINGA, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of a Black Rhino Bull that has been shot 4 times by poachers and had the stump of its horn removed, Save' Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe, April 23, 2011. This Rhino had already been de-horned by a vet in order to deincentivize poachers on the property but the poachers shot him anyway and brutally removed the stump of horn that remained. He was left for dead but was found wandering through the bush approximately 4 days after the incident, his face bleeding and screw-worm breeding in the wound. A decision was made to keep the animal alive rather than put him down and heavy doses of anti-biotics were administered. This Rhino died from his wounds one week after this photo was taken. Save' Valley Conservancy has lost a total of 66 Rhino to Poachers since 2002, including 10 in 2011. Rhino game ranchers in Zimbabwe speak of a number of issues when it comes to protecting their animals in Zimbabwe. There are issues of politics which affect the number of tourists that visit, this has been very low since 2000. Despite the fact that the Rhino actually belong to the state, private ranchers are asked to hire government Rangers from the State at considerable expense in order to protect them. This makes the economics of raising Rhino very difficult. Issues of security are difficult as it is hard to procure automatic weapons from a paranoid government and prosecution for the shooting of poachers can be very biased towards the locals. There is a perception on the part of government that training of Rangers is paramilitary and thus a threat.

TUGELA PRIVATE GAME RESERVE, COLENSO, NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, NOVEMBER 2010: Images of a female rhino who 4 months ago survived a brutal dehorning by poachers who used a chainsaw to remove her horns and a large section of bone in this area of her skull, Natal, South Africa, November 9, 2010. The poachers surveyed the area by helicopter, mapped out the movements of the Rhino and the Guards and then darted the animal and hacked of the horn with a chainsaw. In an act of callous brutality they left the animal alive when they left with her horns. This Rhino was consequently found the next day wandering around in unimaginable pain. She also had a young 4 week old calf who was seperated in the incident and subsequently died of starvation and dehydration. The female adult miraculously survived the dehorning and with some supervision has gone on to join up with a male bull who accompanies her and helps her to survive.

HOEDSPRUIT, SOUTH AFRICA, APRIL 2011: A White Rhino snared and killed for its horns 5 days before on Selati private game reserve in the Hoedspruit area of South Africa, April 9 2011. This animal was one of two to die this way in a two day period. Rhino killing has now become opportunistic in Africa with many poachers who previously would only snare smaller animals trying to take advantage of the Asian market for Rhino horn. The pursuit of rhino horn has moved beyond the realm of professional hunters into a much larger circle with links to organized crime.

iMFOLOZI GAME RESERVE, NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 2011: Images of a White Rhino mother and calf in the landscape of iMfolozi Game Reserve in Natal, South Africa, May 1, 2011. Hluwhluwe iMfolozi Game Reserve is the worlds largest repository of Rhino, with an estimated 2300 rhino in total, a majority of which are White with a large contingent of Black Rhino. This terrain is considered to be representative of how Rhino have lived on Earth for thousands of years. With over 400 Rhino killed for their horn in 2011 in South Africa alone, the species is racing towards extinction because of the insatiable appetite for medicinal Rhino horn amongst the new Asian elites.

VICTORIA FALLS, ZIMBABWE, APRIL 2011: Images of newly formed IAPF, The International Anti-Poaching Foundation, leading a Pro-bono training workshop for Rhino protection for Rangers who have come from all over Zimbabwe, April 5, 2011. Led by Australian Damien Mander, 31, a former Special Operations soldier in the Australian military, the IAPF is teaching anti-poaching techniques which include tracking, self-defence, observation positions, weapons training and patroling techniques including tracking, ambush and arrest techniques. The work is largely pro-bono and is supported by donations. Mander has used his own money to start the organization. Rangers in Zimbabwe have little access to automatic weapons and good training and are struggling to contain rampant Rhino horn poaching across the country. Zimbabwe has significant Black Rhino numbers, of which there are now less than 3500 left in the world today.

KLERKSDORP, SOUTH AFRICA, MARCH 2011: A White Rhino cow is de-horned as a precautionary anti-poaching measure on a game farm outside of Klerksdorp, South Africa, March 25 2011. The Vet's assistant is seen holding the horns for an identity picture while the Vet does a final check on the animal. Rhino Poaching has reached epedemic proportions in South Africa, with 334 killed in 2010 and over 400 killed in 2011. Many game farmers are increasingly turning to de-horning their animals as a protective measure against poaching. A 2 year study in Zimbabwe on the effects of de-horning has revealed no negative repercussions to the animal, and has seen less animals killed through fighting and horn damage. A large horn grows back after 5 years to its full size without trauma to the animal and thus can be seen as a renewable, sustainable resource for the Asian markets if legalized. At this time the only legal means to obtain a horn in South Africa is through a permitted hunt with a member of the conservation authority present. This means that the animal has to die before the horn is available. Statistics on poaching prove that the lack of access to legal horn has seen poaching become common practise and the price of Rhino horn has reached an all time high, surpassing that of gold. The counter argument to de-horning for profit is that it will lead to an interference in the natural world and an abuse of the resource in terms of animal treatment. Most Vets across South Africa have adopted de-horning as a neccesary anti-poaching technique to save the animals from being killed for their horn. On average a de-horning takes an experienced vet no more than 25 minutes to do from start to finish and the animal goes straight back to feeding with no visible sign of trauma afterwards. A standard 8 cms of stump is left behind, ensuring no actual tissue is ever damaged on the Rhino. The horns once taken are fitted with micro-chips, individually permitted and in most cases stored in bank vaults

OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, KENYA, JULY 2011: A four man anti-poaching team permanently guards a Northern White Rhino on Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya, 13 July 2011. The Ol Pejeta Conservancy is an important “not-for-profit” wildlife conservancy in the Laikipia District of Kenya and the largest sanctuary for black rhinos in East Africa. It is also the home of 4 of the world's remaining 8 Northern White Rhino, the worlds most endangered animal. There has been an increase in poaching incidents on Ol Pejeta recently, in line with a massive worldwide increase in rhino poaching linked to the rise in the Asian middle class. Anti-poaching teams provide close protection to the rhino, with 24 hour observation over all rhino on Ol Pejeta and 24 hour armed guard protection over the 4 Northern White Rhino who are kept in their own Boma area. The team have developed extraordinary relationships with these Rhino, leaning on them, scratching them and displaying tremendous affection towards these most endangered of animals. Each of the men in these teams feels a genuine vocation towards the protection of these animals, something the rhino seem to sense, and this emerges on a daily basis as the men walk with the rhino through their day.

Baoloc, Vietnam, 6 October 2011: A wealthy Vietnamese woman sits and grinds Rhino horn for her personal consumption in a roadside café in Baoloc, Vietnam. The dealer who sold her the horn sits next to her. Rhino Horn is an illegal substance in Vietnam yet both the woman and her dealer have no fear of the police, grinding the horn in a café in full view of the street. The dealer states that he pays $1500 a month to the right people and they can carry on with impunity. The woman says that it has cured her Kidney Stones and now she takes it daily for her general health. Rhino horn is generally used as a fever reducing agent and for the removal of toxins across Vietnam, the biggest market for horn today. Rhino horn has even been held up as a cure for Cancer by a senior Minister in the Vietnamese government. Rhino horn is now worth more than gold on the international market. 100 grams of Rhino horn in Vietnam sells for $2500 to locals and over $8500 to foreign buyers, these were